Political turmoil in the United Kingdom following the conclusion of withdrawal agreement and political declaration on post-Brexit relationship

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Publication Date 2018-
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Summary:

Reports and analyses regarding political turmoil in the United Kingdom following the agreement reached between this country and the European Union on a withdrawal agreement and a political declaration on the post-Brexit relationship between the two sides. It includes the debate and votes by the House of Commons on the withdrawal agreement.

Further information:

The British Prime Minister Theresa May faced harsh criticism following the announcement of a deal between the United Kingdom and the European Union on a withdrawal agreement and later on a political declaration on the post-Brexit relationship between the two sides.

Despite the acceptance by her cabinet of the draft agreement, several members of her team later resigned over the content of the deal. Ms May also faced strong criticism from the more Eurosceptic sectors of her own Conservative party. Northern Irish unionists also signalled they would not be able to support the draft agreement in Parliament. Multiple media reports pointed to the possibility of a vote of no-confidence in the House of Commons. Following the official endorsement of the draft agreements by the European Union, Ms May turned her focus to making sure the withdrawal deal would be approved by Parliament in the United Kingdom. However, analysts forecast the document would fail to collect a majority across the chamber.

On 4 December, the UK Government faced further defeats in Parliament, including a vote of contempt which forced the publication of the full legal advice provided by the Attorney General on the withdrawal agreement. Members of Parliament (MPs) also backed calls for the House of Commons to have a direct say in what happens should the agreement be formally rejected.

The UK Government announced on 10 December it would delay the vote at the House of Commons regarding the Withdrawal Agreement due to a lack of parliamentary consenus in favour of it. The Prime Minister also signalled she would go back to the European Union to seek further assurances on the so-called 'Irish backstop', which would keep a seamless border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland in a no-deal scenario.

It was announced on 12 December that a number of Conservative members of Parliament had triggered an internal vote of confidence on Theresa May's premiership. The Prime Minister managed to hold on to power with 200 votes against 117. Despite her victory, Ms May announced on 13 December she would not seek to lead the party beyond the end of her mandate.

The parliamentary debate on the withdrawal agreement re-started in early January 2019. An amendment requiring a quick alternative to be brought to Parliament should the draft agreement be rejected was approved by a cross-party majority on 9 January.  The debate was marred by criticism towards the Speaker of the House of Commons, who allowed such vote to take place. Attention also turned to the opposition Labour Party, amid uncertainty over the solutions offered by its leadership to the Brexit process. The so-called 'meaningful vote' was held on 14 January, which resulted in the rejection of the proposed withdrawal agreement by 432-202 votes.

Following the rejection of the withdrawal agreement by the House of Commons, the leader of the Labour Party tabled a motion of no confidence in the government, which was rejected on 16 January by 325-306 votes. As a result, Ms May launched cross-party talks to find an alternative solution for the way forward on Brexit before the deadline on 21 January. Political leaders from across the European Union called on the United Kingdom to quickly clarify its intentions.

On 29 January, the House of Commons voted on a number of amendments to the Withdrawal Act, two of which gathered a majority. One of them gives the Prime Minister a mandate to seek with the European Union a set of alternative arrangements to the so-called 'Irish backstop' (through the 'Malthouse compromise' which was agreed between different factions within the Conservative Party). The other rules out the possibility of a no-deal scenario for the UK's withdrawal from the European Union, even though this was merely indicative upon the Government.

However, yet another vote on 14 February - on a government motion asking the House of Commons to back its negotiating strategy - resulted in another cabinet defeat as parliamentarians refused to maintain the support indicated in the late-January vote.

On 11 March, it was revealed the UK government and the European Commission had agreed on further reassurances regarding some elements of the Withdrawal Agreement. This was concluded just before another meaningful vote in the House of Commons, held on 12 March. On that same day, the UK's Attorney General issued his legal opinion on the agreed Joint Instrument and Unilateral Declaration concerning the Withdrawal Agreement. The Parliament ultimately rejected the proposed agreement yet again, by 391-242 votes. On the next day, the Parliament expressed the view in another vote (321-278) that it did not wish to see the UK leave the European Union without an agreement under any circumstances. This outcome was also consequence of cabinet ministers not following their party indication for the votes. On 14 March, a majority of MPs endorsed the government's motion that would seek to delay the withdrawal from the European Union.

The Speaker of the House of Commons indicated on 18 March that he would not allow the same document to be put to a vote yet again, adding another layer of doubt over the ratification of the withdrawal agreement. On 20 March, the Prime Minister sent a letter to the President of the European Council formally requesting a three-month extension to Article 50 and later addressed the country to justify her likely inability to abide by her initial promise to deliver Brexit until the end of March 2019. The European Council agreed to an extension at a meeting on 21 March.

Members of Parliament voted on 25 March to take control (329-302) of the parliamentary timetable in an effort to find a majority for any Brexit option. The vote would led to votes being set up later in the week to find out what kind of Brexit gathered more support. The Prime Minister stated there was no guarantee she would abide by their wish. None of the proposed alternatives gathered a majority on 27 March. On 29 March, the government decided to put forward the Withdrawal Agreement - but not the related Political Declaration - once again for vote in Parliament. However, MPs rejected again the proposed deal (344-286).

On 1 April, MPs proceeded with another round of indicative votes and did not manage to reach a majority on any alternative proposal yet again. A proposed Customs Union came closest to a majority (273-276), while a proposed second referendum gathered the highest level of endorsement (280-292). On 2 April, following a cabinet meeting, the Prime Minister decided to reach out to the leader of the Opposition (Labour Party's Jeremy Corbyn) for a negotiated plan on the way forward.

As negotiations unfolded, Ms May formally requested on 5 April a further extension to the Article 50 process to the European Union. The proposal featured the 30 June as the new deadline, which would be subject to discussion by the EU27 at a special meeting of the European Council. EU27 leaders agreed on 10 April to a further extension until 31 October, which also required the UK to hold a European Parliament election if the withdrawal was not endorsed until 23 May.

Related Link(s)
Commentary and Analysis
Euro|topics, November 2018: Brexit deal sparks government crisis https://www.eurotopics.net/en/209890/
The Economist, 15/11/2018: The beginning of the endgame for Brexit https://www.economist.com/britain/2018/11/15/the-beginning-of-the-endgame-for-brexit
Carnegie Europe: Strategic Europe, 15/11/2018: Theresa May’s Worsening Woes https://carnegieeurope.eu/strategiceurope/77718
Chatham House: Expert Comment, 16/11/2018: In Brexit Negotiations, Both Sides Have Now Compromised https://www.chathamhouse.org/expert/comment/brexit-negotiations-both-sides-have-now-compromised
The Guardian, 04/12/2018: What does Dominic Grieve's amendment mean for Brexit? https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2018/dec/04/what-does-dominic-grieves-amendment-mean-for-brexit
Euro|topics, December 2018: Brexit showdown in London https://www.eurotopics.net/en/211143/
Euro|topics, December 2018: May wants to save the Brexit deal https://www.eurotopics.net/en/211470/
Open Europe: Blog, 11/12/2018: Can the Government secure meaningful reassurances on the backstop? https://openeurope.org.uk/today/blog/can-the-government-secure-meaningful-reassurances-on-the-backstop/
The Economist, 12.12.18: How Theresa May could be ousted as Tory leader https://www.economist.com/the-economist-explains/2018/12/12/how-theresa-may-could-be-ousted-as-tory-leader
The Conversation, 12.12.18: Theresa May survives confidence vote – but her Brexit deal is still in deep trouble https://theconversation.com/theresa-may-survives-confidence-vote-but-her-brexit-deal-is-still-in-deep-trouble-108728
Foreign Policy, 13.12.18: Dead May Walking https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/12/13/dead-may-walking/
Euro|topics, December 2018: After the no-confidence vote: May of steel? https://www.eurotopics.net/en/211636/
The Economist, 13.12.18: The real lesson from Theresa May’s bruising week https://www.economist.com/leaders/2018/12/13/the-real-lesson-from-theresa-mays-bruising-week
BBC News, 13.12.18: How long can Theresa May survive as PM? https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-46556444
The Economist, 10.01.19: Labour’s Brexit cop-out betrays its members https://www.economist.com/leaders/2019/01/10/labours-brexit-cop-out-betrays-its-members
Politico, 10.01.19: Antagonistic House of Commons speaker who changed Brexit https://www.politico.eu/article/john-bercow-mps-champion-or-popinjay-who-could-alter-course-of-brexit/
Open Europe: Blog, 08.01.19: ‘Suspending’ Article 50: What options does the UK have? https://openeurope.org.uk/today/blog/suspending-article-50-what-options-does-the-uk-have/
Institute for Government: Comment, 10.01.19: Brexit’s future is in John Bercow’s hands https://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/blog/brexit-future-john-bercow-hands
The UK in a Changing Europe: Analysis, 10.01.19: What MPs really think will happen after a no-deal Brexit http://ukandeu.ac.uk/what-mps-really-think-will-happen-after-a-no-deal-brexit/
Institute for Government: Blog, 15.01.19: After the meaningful vote, what next for Brexit? https://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/blog/after-meaningful-vote-what-next-brexit
Deutsche Welle, 16.01.19: Brexit likely to be Britain's greatest disaster https://p.dw.com/p/3Bc9C
Politico, 16.01.19: British politics goes over a cliff https://www.politico.eu/article/british-politics-goes-over-a-cliff-theresa-may-brexit-vote/
Euro|topics, January 2019: Brexit vote in London: tense wait for the No https://www.eurotopics.net/en/212778/
The Conversation, 15.01.19: Theresa May Brexit deal hammered in parliament, but be wary of prospects of a new ‘consensus’ approach https://theconversation.com/theresa-may-brexit-deal-hammered-in-parliament-but-be-wary-of-prospects-of-a-new-consensus-approach-109930
Open Europe: Daily Shakeup, 16.01.19: May’s deal defeated by a majority of 230 https://openeurope.org.uk/daily-shakeup/mays-deal-defeated-by-a-majority-of-230/
Foreign Policy, 15.01.19: The Beginning of the End of Britain’s Brexit Fantasy https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/01/15/the-beginning-of-the-end-of-britain-brexit-fantasy-may-vote/
Institute for Government: Blog, 15.01.19: The historic significance of Theresa May’s defeat https://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/blog/historic-significance-theresa-may-defeat
Euro|topics, January 2019: Should the EU make concessions to London? https://www.eurotopics.net/en/213108/
The Conversation, 16.01.19: Theresa May survives confidence vote, but Brussels is in charge now https://theconversation.com/brexit-theresa-may-survives-confidence-vote-but-brussels-is-in-charge-now-109976
LSE: EUROPP Blog, 17.01.19: New tricks for an old hand: Getting Brexit through Parliament http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/europpblog/2019/01/17/new-tricks-for-an-old-dog-getting-brexit-through-parliament/
Carnegie Europe: Strategic Europe, 16.01.19: Brexit Showdown http://carnegieeurope.eu/strategiceurope/78133
Deutsche Welle, 29.01.19: Theresa May's 'Mission Impossible' in Brussels https://p.dw.com/p/3CPDG
The Conversation, 29.01.19: Brexit: parliament sends May back to Brussels – what latest amendment votes mean https://theconversation.com/brexit-parliament-sends-may-back-to-brussels-what-latest-amendment-votes-mean-110748
Institute for Government: Comment, 29.01.19: The Malthouse compromise prizes Conservative unity over Brexit negotiability https://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/blog/malthouse-compromise-prizes-conservative-unity-over-brexit-negotiability
Open Europe, 30.01.19: Theresa May to renegotiate Irish backstop after MPs vote for 'alternative arrangements' https://openeurope.org.uk/daily-shakeup/theresa-may-to-renegotiate-irish-backstop-after-mps-vote-for-alternative-arrangements/
Euro|topics, January 2019: Brexit: London wants renegotiations https://www.eurotopics.net/en/213938/
Euro|topics, February 2019: Must the Brexit deal be renegotiated? https://www.eurotopics.net/en/214770/
IfG: Comment, 08.02.19: How the Government can deal with Parliament’s Brexit deadlines https://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/blog/how-government-can-deal-parliament-brexit-deadlines
LSE: EUROPP Blog, 12.02.19: Why has Corbyn remained so ambivalent about Brexit? https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/europpblog/2019/02/12/why-has-corbyn-remained-so-ambivalent-about-brexit/
Euro|topics, March 2019: EU makes last-minute concessions before vote https://www.eurotopics.net/en/216349/
BBC News, 12/03/2019: Brexit deal: What do the documents say? https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-47543521
The Guardian, 12/03/2019: May's Brexit deal: has anything actually changed? https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/mar/12/may-brexit-deal-has-anything-actually-changed-backstop-assurances-what-happens-next
The Conversation, 12/03/2019: Theresa May loses another Brexit vote – is it time she just gave up? https://theconversation.com/theresa-may-loses-another-brexit-vote-is-it-time-she-just-gave-up-113294
Institute for Government: Blog, 12/03/2019: An Article 50 extension is becoming inevitable – the question is how long? https://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/blog/article-50-extension-becoming-inevitable-question-how-long
EU Law Analysis, 12/03/2019: The second vote against the withdrawal agreement: what next? http://eulawanalysis.blogspot.com/2019/03/the-second-vote-against-withdrawal.html
Open Europe: Blog, 13/03/2019: What changes has the Attorney General proposed to the backstop? https://openeurope.org.uk/today/blog/what-changes-has-the-attorney-general-proposed-to-the-backstop/
Spiegel Online, 13/03/2019: EU Politicians Believe Withdrawal Agreement Is Dead http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/no-deal-brexit-risk-grows-as-theresa-may-loses-second-vote-a-1257614.html
Euro|topics, March 2019: Is there a way out of the Brexit impasse? https://www.eurotopics.net/en/216429/
Euro|topics, March 2019: MPs want Brexit postponement https://www.eurotopics.net/en/216521/
Carnegie Europe, 15/03/2019: Fate of Brexit Still Muddled After Latest Round of Votes in Parliament https://carnegieeurope.eu/2019/03/15/fate-of-brexit-still-muddled-after-latest-round-of-votes-in-parliament-pub-78612
Spiegel Online, 15/03/2019: The Prime Minister of Humiliation http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/theresa-may-s-brexit-disaster-a-1258101.html
EU Law Analysis, 17/03/2019: Of extension of UK membership and basic democratic principles: why the UK will need to hold EP elections if its membership of the EU is prolonged beyond the 22nd of May http://eulawanalysis.blogspot.com/2019/03/of-extension-of-uk-membership-and-basic.html
Euro|topics, March 2019: House Speaker prevents Brexit vote https://www.eurotopics.net/en/216775/
The Economist, 19/03/2019: John Bercow drops a Brexit bombshell https://www.economist.com/britain/2019/03/19/john-bercow-drops-a-brexit-bombshell
The Conversation, 20/03/2019: Theresa May requests short Brexit extension: how to understand this reckless move https://theconversation.com/theresa-may-requests-short-brexit-extension-how-to-understand-this-reckless-move-113966
BBC News, 20/03/2019: John Bercow: A lesson from history on the limits of the Speaker's powers https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-parliaments-47643256
Institute for Government: Blog, 20/03/2019: ‘Indicative votes’ are a procedural fix for a political problem https://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/blog/indicative-votes-are-procedural-fix-political-problem
Institute for Government: Blog, 20/03/2019: A longer Brexit extension might come back on the table https://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/blog/longer-brexit-extension-might-come-back-table
The Conversation, 21/03/2019: Theresa May is right about one thing – it’s time politicians worked together on Brexit https://theconversation.com/theresa-may-is-right-about-one-thing-its-time-politicians-worked-together-on-brexit-113968
The Guardian, 25/03/2019: The Guardian view on parliament and Brexit: take back control https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/mar/25/the-guardian-view-on-parliament-and-brexit-take-back-control
Euro|topics, March 2019: Must Theresa May be on her way? https://www.eurotopics.net/en/217111/
Euro|topics, April 2019: Brexit blockade: May reaches out to opposition https://www.eurotopics.net/en/217687/
The Guardian, 07/04/2019: How cross-party Brexit talks left both sides frustrated https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/apr/07/how-cross-party-brexit-talks-left-both-sides-frustrated-labour-tories
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Hansard Society: Blog, 23/04/2019: The Brexit 'flextension': Legislative provisions and Withdrawal Agreement ratification https://www.hansardsociety.org.uk/blog/the-brexit-flextension-legislative-provisions-and-withdrawal-agreement
Hansard Society: Blog, 23/04/2019: The Brexit 'flextension': Five implications for Parliament https://www.hansardsociety.org.uk/blog/the-brexit-flextension-five-implications-for-parliament

News
Deutsche Welle, 15/11/2018: Theresa May defends draft Brexit deal amid conservative outcry https://p.dw.com/p/38LPh
Deutsche Welle, 15/11/2018: UK Brexit minister Dominic Raab and others resign over exit deal https://p.dw.com/p/38H88
Politico, 15/11/2018: Theresa May faces hostility on all sides as she fights to save Brexit deal https://www.politico.eu/article/british-prime-minister-theresa-may-faces-hostility-on-all-sides-as-she-fights-to-save-brexit-deal/
Politico, 15/11/2018: Theresa May buffeted by resignations over her Brexit deal https://www.politico.eu/article/uk-brexit-secretary-dominic-raab-resigns/
EurActiv, 15/11/2018: Theresa May battles to save Brexit deal as ministers quit https://www.euractiv.com/section/future-eu/news/theresa-may-battles-to-save-brexit-deal-as-ministers-quit/
BBC News, 18/11/2018: Theresa May: Brexit won't be easier if I'm ousted https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-46250607
The Guardian, 19/11/2018: Theresa May defies Tory rebels to press on with Brexit deal https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2018/nov/18/theresa-may-tory-rebels-brexit-deal-uk-immigration
The Independent, 25/11/2018: Jeremy Hunt admits it's 'challenging' to secure MPs' support for May's deal as DUP vow to oppose her https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/brexit-deal-latest-jeremy-hunt-dup-theresa-may-eu-commons-support-a8650771.html
BBC News, 26/11/2018 Brexit: Back my deal or risk more division, May to tell MPs https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-46336772
The Guardian, 26/11/2018: Labour argues for article 50 extension if Brexit deal voted down https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2018/nov/26/labour-argues-for-article-50-extension-if-brexit-deal-voted-down
Politico, 04/12/2018: Theresa May’s day of Brexit losses https://www.politico.eu/article/theresa-may-day-of-brexit-losses-parliament/
BBC News, 05/12/2018: Theresa May suffers three Brexit defeats in Commons https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-46446694
EurActiv, 05/12/2018: Divided UK braces for once-in-a-lifetime ‘meaningful’ Brexit vote https://www.euractiv.com/section/uk-europe/news/divided-uk-braces-for-once-in-a-lifetime-meaningful-brexit-vote/
The Guardian, 10/12/2018: Theresa May postpones Brexit deal vote https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2018/dec/10/theresa-may-postpones-brexit-deal-meaningful-vote-eu
BBC News, 10/12/2018: Theresa May calls off MPs' vote on her Brexit deal https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-46509288
The Scotsman, 10/12/2018: Nicola Sturgeon says vote delay is 'pathetic cowardice' https://www.scotsman.com/news/politics/brexit-nicola-sturgeon-says-vote-delay-is-pathetic-cowardice-1-4841839
The Economist, 10/12/2018 Facing heavy defeat on her Brexit deal, Theresa May delays the vote https://www.economist.com/britain/2018/12/10/facing-heavy-defeat-on-her-brexit-deal-theresa-may-delays-the-vote
BBC News, 12/12/2018 Theresa May to face vote of no confidence from Tory MPs https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-46535739
EurActiv, 12.12.18: May’s premiership hangs by a thread ahead of EU summit https://www.euractiv.com/section/uk-europe/news/mays-premiership-hangs-by-a-thread-ahead-of-eu-summit/
Politico, 11.12.18: Theresa May’s Brexit desperation tour https://www.politico.eu/article/theresa-may-brexit-deal-desperation-tour/
The Guardian, 11.12.18: May’s leadership under threat as Tory MPs mobilise against her https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2018/dec/11/eu-steps-up-plans-for-no-deal-brexit-as-merkel-rebuffs-may
Politico, 13.12.18: Theresa May and Brexiteers lick wounds after leadership clash https://www.politico.eu/article/theresa-may-and-brexiteers-lick-wounds-after-leadership-clash/
The Guardian, 09.01.19: Theresa May suffers Commons defeat over Brexit plan B https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/jan/09/mps-force-theresa-may-to-table-plan-b-if-she-loses-brexit-deal-vote
Politico, 09.01.19: Business ‘alarm’ at Brexit impasse, says UK minister https://www.politico.eu/article/greg-clark-brexit-business-alarm-at-brexit-impasse-says-uk-minister/
EurActiv, 15.01.19: May to face confidence vote after Brexit deal suffers crushing defeat https://www.euractiv.com/section/uk-europe/news/may-to-face-confidence-vote-after-brexit-deal-suffers-crushing-defeat/
BBC News, 16.01.19: Theresa May's deal is voted down in historic Commons defeat https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-46885828
The Guardian, 16.01.19: Theresa May suffers historic defeat in vote as Tories turn against her https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/jan/15/theresa-may-suffers-historic-defeat-as-tories-turn-against-her
Politico, 16.01.19: Michel Barnier sees high risk of no-deal Brexit https://www.politico.eu/article/michel-barnier-sees-high-risk-of-no-deal-brexit-european-parliament-strasbourg/
Foreign Policy, 15.01.19: A Very British Thrashing https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/01/15/a-very-british-thrashing-may-brexit-vote-fails/
The Economist, 15.01.19: Theresa May loses big over her Brexit deal https://www.economist.com/britain/2019/01/15/theresa-may-loses-big-over-her-brexit-deal
Politico, 16.01.19: Theresa May survives confidence vote https://www.politico.eu/article/theresa-may-survives-confidence-vote/
EurActiv, 16.01.19: May offers cross-party Brexit talks after surviving confidence vote https://www.euractiv.com/section/uk-europe/news/may-offers-cross-party-brexit-talks-after-surviving-confidence-vote/
Deutsche Welle, 16.01.19: Theresa May calls for 'way forward' on Brexit after winning no confidence vote https://p.dw.com/p/3BgIC
Politico, 29.01.19: May wins chance for last throw of Brexit dice https://www.politico.eu/article/may-wins-chance-for-last-throw-of-brexit-dice/
BBC News, 29.01.19: Brexit: MPs back May's bid to change deal https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-47050665
The Guardian, 29.01.19: Brexit: May goes back to Brussels but EU says nothing has changed https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/jan/29/may-goes-back-to-brussels-but-eu-says-nothing-has-changed
EurActiv, 29.01.19: Tear up Irish backstop, MPs tell May in new Brexit twist https://www.euractiv.com/section/uk-europe/news/tear-up-irish-backstop-mps-tell-may-in-new-brexit-twist/
Deutsche Welle, 30.01.19: EU rejects fresh Brexit negotiations https://p.dw.com/p/3CPOO
The Guardian, 14.02.19: Conservatives react angrily to defeat of May's Brexit plan https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/feb/14/conservatives-react-angrily-to-defeat-of-mays-brexit-plan
BBC News, 15.02.19: Theresa May pushes on with her deal after latest defeat https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-47251134
Open Europe, 15.02.19: Government loses vote on its Brexit strategy https://openeurope.org.uk/daily-shakeup/government-loses-vote-on-its-brexit-strategy/
Deutsche Welle, 11/03/2019: Brexit: UK and EU hail breakthrough in talks https://p.dw.com/p/3EpSd
Politico, 11/03/2019: Theresa May unveils ‘legal’ add-on to Brexit deal https://www.politico.eu/article/uk-government-announces-legal-brexit-assurances/
EurActiv, 12/03/2019: May gets ‘legally binding’ assurances on backstop from last-ditch Strasbourg trip https://www.euractiv.com/section/uk-europe/news/may-gets-legally-binding-assurances-on-backstop-from-last-ditch-strasbourg-trip/
Open Europe: Daily ShakeUp, 12/03/2019: May and Juncker agree on legal assurances for the Irish Backstop ahead of meaningful vote https://openeurope.org.uk/daily-shakeup/may-and-juncker-agree-on-legal-assurances-for-the-irish-backstop-ahead-of-meaningful-vote/
The Economist, 12/03/2019: Theresa May’s tweaked Brexit deal returns to Parliament https://www.economist.com/britain/2019/03/12/theresa-mays-tweaked-brexit-deal-returns-to-parliament
Foreign Policy, 11/03/2019: Theresa May’s Last Dash for a Deal https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/03/11/theresa-may-last-dash-for-a-deal-brexit-eu/
EurActiv, 12/03/2019: UK set to demand Brexit extension after MPs hand heavy defeat to May https://www.euractiv.com/section/uk-europe/news/uk-set-to-demand-brexit-extension-after-mps-hand-heavy-defeat-to-may/
The Economist, 12/03/2019: Theresa May’s Brexit deal fails again https://www.economist.com/britain/2019/03/12/theresa-mays-brexit-deal-fails-again
Foreign Policy, 12/03/2019: Battered and Bereft, May Loses Again on Brexit https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/03/12/battered-and-bereft-may-loses-again-on-brexit/
Deutsche Welle, 13/03/2019: Brexit vote: European Union closes ranks in response https://p.dw.com/p/3Eug5
BBC News, 13/03/2019: Brexit: MPs reject Theresa May's deal for a second time https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-47547887
EurActiv, 13/03/2019: UK may have to hold EU elections, May warns after MPs rule out ‘no deal’ Brexit https://www.euractiv.com/section/uk-europe/news/uk-may-have-to-hold-eu-elections-may-warns-after-mps-rule-out-no-deal-brexit/
Politico, 13/03/2019: UK parliament votes to reject no-deal Brexit https://www.politico.eu/article/uk-parliament-votes-to-reject-no-deal-brexit-2/
BBC News, 14/03/2019: Brexit: MPs vote to reject no-deal Brexit https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-47562995
Open Europe: Daily Shakeup, 14/03/2019: MPs vote to reject No Deal Brexit https://openeurope.org.uk/daily-shakeup/mps-vote-to-reject-no-deal-brexit/
Politico, 14/03/2019: UK parliament votes to delay Brexit https://www.politico.eu/article/uk-parliament-votes-to-delay-brexit/
The Guardian, 14/03/2019: MPs back Brexit delay as votes lay bare cabinet divisions https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/mar/14/mps-vote-by-majority-of-210-to-extend-article-50-and-delay-brexit
BBC News, 14/03/2019: Brexit: MPs vote by a majority of 211 to seek delay to EU departure https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-47576813
The Economist, 14/03/2019: The Brexit process heads for extra time https://www.economist.com/britain/2019/03/14/the-brexit-process-heads-for-extra-time
The Guardian, 18/03/2019: Brexit: John Bercow rules out third meaningful vote on same deal https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/mar/18/brexit-john-bercow-rules-out-third-meaningful-vote-on-same-deal
Politico, 20/03/2019: Theresa May blames MPs for Brexit delay https://www.politico.eu/article/theresa-may-blames-mps-for-brexit-delay/
BBC News, 20/03/2019: Brexit: 'Tired' public needs a decision, says Theresa May https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-47647515
Deutsche Welle, 25/03/2019: UK Parliament defies Theresa May, backs vote on Brexit alternatives https://p.dw.com/p/3FeeR
Politico, 25/03/2019: House of Commons takes control of Brexit https://www.politico.eu/article/house-of-commons-takes-control-of-brexit-westminster-theresa-may/
BBC News, 26/03/2019: Brexit: MPs vote to take control of Brexit process for indicative votes https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-47701591
EurActiv, 26/03/2019: UK Parliament takes back control of Brexit from May https://www.euractiv.com/section/uk-europe/news/uk-parliament-takes-back-control-of-brexit-from-may/
Politico, 01/04/2019: House of Commons rejects all Brexit options — again https://www.politico.eu/article/house-of-commons-rejects-all-brexit-options-again/
BBC News, 02/04/2019: Brexit votes: MPs fail to back proposals again https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-47781009
The Guardian, 02/04/2019: Soft Brexiters blame referendum supporters for Commons deadlock https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/apr/01/soft-brexiters-hope-brexit-fatigue-could-sway-tory-mps
Politico, 02/04/2019: May reaches out to Corbyn to break Brexit impasse https://www.politico.eu/article/theresa-may-further-brexit-extension-request/
EurActiv, 03/04/2019: May offers cross-party talks, increasing hopes of soft Brexit https://www.euractiv.com/section/uk-europe/news/may-offers-cross-party-talks-increasing-hopes-of-soft-brexit/
BBC News, 05/04/2019: Brexit: UK asks EU for further extension until 30 June https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-47825841
Politico, 05/04/2019: Theresa May requests Brexit extension to June 30 https://www.politico.eu/article/theresa-may-brexit-extension-june-30/
EurActiv, 05/04/2019: May demands 30 June Brexit extension, again https://www.euractiv.com/section/uk-europe/news/may-demands-30-june-brexit-extension-again/

Official
UK Government: PM's Brexit speech in Stoke-on-Trent, 14 January 2019 https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/pms-brexit-speech-in-stoke-on-trent-14-january-2019
European Commission: Statement by President Juncker on the outcome of the Meaningful Vote in the United Kingdom House of Commons, 15 January 2019 http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_STATEMENT-19-432_en.htm
UK Government: PM statement to the House of Commons, 29 January 2019 https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/pm-statement-to-the-house-of-commons-29-january-2019
European Commission: Speeches by President Juncker and Chief Negotiator Michel Barnier at the Plenary session of the European Parliament on the occasion of the debate on the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the EU, 30 January 2019 http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-19-789_en.htm
European Parliament: Press Release, 30.01.19: MEPs urge UK to break current deadlock http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/press-room/20190123IPR24124/
UK Government: Prime Minister's press statement in Strasbourg: 11 March 2019 https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/prime-ministers-press-statement-in-strasbourg-11-march-2019
UK Government: 11 March Withdrawal Agreement and Political Declaration laid before Parliament following political agreement https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/11-march-withdrawal-agreement-and-political-declaration-laid-before-parliament-following-political-agreement
European Commission: Remarks by President Jean-Claude Juncker at today's joint press conference with UK Prime Minister Theresa May, 11 March 2019 http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-19-1635_en.htm
UK Government: Legal Opinion on Joint Instrument and Unilateral Declaration concerning the Withdrawal Agreement, 12 March 2019 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/legal-opinion-on-joint-instrument-and-unilateral-declaration-concerning-the-withdrawal-agreement
European Parliament: Press Release, 13/03/2019: UK must make clear what it wants, MEPs say in Brexit debate http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/press-room/20190307IPR30738/
UK Government: Prime Minister's letter to President Tusk, 20 March 2019 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/prime-ministers-letter-to-president-tusk-20-march-2019
UK Government: PM statement on Brexit, 20 March 2019 https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/pm-statement-on-brexit-20-march-2019
UK Parliament: News, 25/03/2019: MPs vote to take control of business and hold indicative votes https://www.parliament.uk/business/news/2019/march/brexit-next-steps-debate-returns-to-the-commons/
European Commission: Statement by the European Commission on the vote on the Withdrawal Agreement in the House of Commons, 29 March 2019 http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_STATEMENT-19-1914_en.htm
UK Government: Prime Minister's letter to President Tusk: 5 April 2019 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/prime-ministers-letter-to-president-tusk-5-april-2019

ESO Records
Brexit – The United Kingdom and the European Union https://www.europeansources.info/record/brexit-the-united-kingdom-and-the-european-union/

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