Regulation (EU) 2023/956 establishing a carbon border adjustment mechanism

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Series Details L 130, Pages 52-104
Publication Date 16/05/2023
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Summary:

Regulation (EU) 2023/956 - adopted by the co-legislators on 10 May 2023 - establishing a new Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM). This is a text with EEA relevance.

Further information:

This Regulation establishes a Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) to address greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions embedded in the goods on their importation into the EU customs territory in order to prevent the risk of carbon leakage. It complements the the EU ETS established under Directive 2003/87/EC by applying an equivalent set of rules to imports into the EU customs territory of the goods referred to in Article 2 of this Regulation. It is also set to replace the mechanisms established under Directive 2003/87/EC to prevent the risk of carbon leakage.

The European Commission first announced its intention to propose a CBAM in its Communication setting out the European Green Deal, applicable to selected sectors to reduce the risk of carbon leakage. The mechanism aims to ensure that the price of imports reflect more accurately their carbon content, should differences in levels of ambition worldwide persist. This measure is designed to comply with World Trade Organisation (WTO) rules and other international obligations of the European Union (EU).

The draft law was adopted by the European Commission on 14 July 2021, as part of the so-called Fit for 55 legislative package. The Council of the European Union adopted its general approach on 15 March 2022. The plenary of the European Parliament endorsed a negotiating position on 22 June. An informal agreement between the co-legislators on a compromise text for the file was reached on 12 December. This was formally endorsed by the Parliament on 18 April 2023 and by the Council on 25 April. The Act was signed by the co-legislators on 10 May 2023 and published in the Official Journal on 16 May 2023.

The first call for feedback on the rules governing the implementation of the CBAM during its transitional phase - from 1 October 2023 until the end of 2025 - was published by the European Commission on 13 June. On 17 August, the Commission adopted an Implementing Regulation focusing on the reporting rules for the CBAM's transitional phase.

Source Link http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2023/956/oj
Related Links
Commentary and Analysis
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Centre for European Reform (CER): Insights, 05/07/2021: Avoiding the pitfalls of an EU Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism https://www.cer.eu/insights/avoiding-pitfalls-eu-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism
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The Economist, 07/08/2021: The EU’s proposed carbon tariff gets a mixed reaction from industry https://www.economist.com/business/2021/08/07/the-eus-proposed-carbon-tariff-gets-a-mixed-reaction-from-industry
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Oxford University: Practical Ethics, 14/09/2021: The Morality of Carbon Border Taxes https://blog.practicalethics.ox.ac.uk/2021/09/the-morality-of-carbon-border-taxes/
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Cambridge University: Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership: Working Paper, October 2021: On the Borderline: The EU CBAM and its place in the world of trade https://www.cisl.cam.ac.uk/resources/publications/eu-cbam-and-its-place-world-trade
Plastics Europe: Knowledge Hub, October 2021: Position Paper - Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) https://plasticseurope.org/knowledge-hub/carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-cbam/
Italian Institute for International Political Studies (ISPI): Commentary, 05/10/2021: The Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism: A Call for Cooperation on Carbon Pricing https://www.ispionline.it/en/pubblicazione/carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-call-cooperation-carbon-pricing-32211
European Aluminium: Preliminary Assessment - Draft Regulation on the introduction of an EU Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (7 October 2021) https://www.european-aluminium.eu/media/3299/07-10-2021-european-aluminium_preliminary-views-on-draft-cbam-proposal-final.pdf
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Open Society Foundations: Voices, 21/10/2021: The EU Must Think Globally on Carbon Import Tax https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/voices/the-eu-must-think-globally-on-carbon-import-tax
Peterson Institute for International Economics (PIIE): Policy Briefs, November 2021: Can EU carbon border adjustment measures propel WTO climate talks? https://www.piie.com/publications/policy-briefs/can-eu-carbon-border-adjustment-measures-propel-wto-climate-talks
European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE): Policy Briefs, November 2021: Europe’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism: Time to Go Back to the Drawing Board https://ecipe.org/publications/europe-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism/
Harvard International Review, 17/11/2021: The European Union, the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism, and Global Climate Leadership https://hir.harvard.edu/the-european-union-the-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-and-global-climate-leadership/
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E3G: Letters, 13/12/2021: EU’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism — Joint NGO statement https://www.e3g.org/news/eu-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-cbam-joint-ngo-statement/
European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS): Briefing, January 2022: ‘Fit for 55’ package: Carbon border adjustment mechanism - Initial Appraisal of a European Commission Impact Assessment https://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/document/EPRS_BRI(2022)699473
Institute of International & European Affairs: Blog, 20/01/2022: CBAM: An EU Foreign Climate Policy https://www.iiea.com/blog/cbam-an-eu-foreign-climate-policy
CEPR: VoxEU: Article, 23/01/2022: Japan should lead the global effort to decarbonise: Reflections on the EU’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism https://voxeu.org/article/reflections-eu-s-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism
SP Global: Market Insights, 09/02/2022: CBAM may not work without policy adopted for steel exporters: webinar https://www.spglobal.com/commodity-insights/en/market-insights/latest-news/metals/020922-cbam-may-not-work-without-policy-adopted-for-steel-exporters-webinar
Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI): Discussion Briefs, 10/02/2022: Swedish policy positions and perspectives on CBAM https://doi.org/10.51414/sei2022.004
Carbon Market Watch: Opinion, 24/02/2022: CBAM: Exploring MEP Chahim’s draft report https://carbonmarketwatch.org/2022/02/24/cbam-exploring-mep-chahims-draft-report/
Ernst&Young (EY): Article, 04/03/2022: Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) update and its impact on the EU cross-border imports https://www.ey.com/en_ch/tax/green-taxes/carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism
Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP): Publications, 07/03/2022: Summary for decision-makers: Four guiding principles for CBAM design and implementation https://ieep.eu/publications/summary-for-decision-makers-four-guiding-principles-for-cbam-design-and-implementation
French Institute of International Relations (IFRI): Brefings, 09/03/2022: The EU’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism: A Piece in the Industry Decarbonization Puzzle https://www.ifri.org/en/publications/briefings-de-lifri/eus-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-piece-industry
European Environmental Bureau (EEB): Joint NGO statement on the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) ahead of the ECOFIN Meeting (10 March 2022) https://eeb.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/NGO-statement-on-CBAM-for-ECOFIN-meeting_March-2022.pdf
Tax Foundation, 18/03/2022: Russia’s Ukrainian War Could Impact EU Carbon Proposal Too https://taxfoundation.org/eu-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-cbam/
Heinrich Böll Foundation (Tel Aviv): Explainer, 21/03/2022: What is the EU’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism and what does it mean for Israel? https://il.boell.org/en/2022/03/21/what-eus-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-cbam
Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR): VoxEU, 26/03/2022: The EU in search of a WTO-compatible Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism https://voxeu.org/article/search-wto-compatible-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism
EurActiv: Opinion, 31/03/2022: United States lawmakers are at a CBAM tipping point https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy-environment/opinion/united-states-lawmakers-are-at-a-cbam-tipping-point/
SP Global: Commodity Insights, 28/04/2022: EU carbon border charge threatens exports: AEGIS Europe https://www.spglobal.com/commodityinsights/en/market-insights/latest-news/energy-transition/042822-eu-carbon-border-charge-threatens-exports-aegis-europe
Centre for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS): Analysis, 17/05/2022: The CBAM, Sectoral Averages, and the Need for Granularity https://www.csis.org/analysis/cbam-sectoral-averages-and-need-granularity
Clingendael: Alert, 24/05/2022: The CBAM effect: the world's response to the EU's climate stick https://www.clingendael.org/publication/cbam-effect-worlds-response-eus-climate-stick
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EPRS: At a Glance, June 2022: EU carbon border adjustment mechanism https://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/document/EPRS_ATA(2022)729462
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E3G: Blog, 26/07/2022: Cooperation on carbon border adjustments could help reset UK–EU relations https://www.e3g.org/news/cooperation-on-carbon-border-adjustments-could-help-reset-uk-eu-relations/
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Bloomberg: Professional Services Blog, 25/10/2022: EU carbon border adjustment mechanism https://www.bloomberg.com/professional/blog/eu-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism/
Blog Droit Européen, 25/10/2022: The European Parliament, the Council and the European Commission enter the second trilogue negotiations for the adoption of the EU Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM), Charlotte Delsol https://blogdroiteuropeen.com/2022/10/25/the-european-parliament-the-council-and-the-european-commission-enter-the-second-trilogue-negotiations-for-the-adoption-of-the-eu-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-cbam-charlotte-delsol/
European Journal of International Law (EJIL): Talk! Blog, 31/10/2022: Is the EU realizing an externally just green transition? A short analysis of the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism from the perspective of the CBDR principle and the right to development of LDCs. https://www.ejiltalk.org/is-the-eu-realizing-an-externally-just-green-transition-a-short-analysis-of-the-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-from-the-perspective-of-the-cbdr-principle-and-the-right-to-development-of-ldcs/
Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR): Discussion Paper, 01/11/2022: The EU Proposal for a Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM): An Analysis under WTO and Climate Change Law https://cepr.org/publications/dp17629
Clingendael Institute: Events, 28/11/2022: Can Europe avoid trade wars over climate policy? The case of CBAM https://www.clingendael.org/event/can-europe-avoid-trade-wars-over-climate-policy-case-cbam
Chatham House: Expert Comment, 05/12/2022: The future for global trade in a changing climate https://www.chathamhouse.org/2022/12/future-global-trade-changing-climate
WorldWide Fund for Nature (WWF), 13/12/2022: Half-baked deal on carbon border levy missing key ingredients https://www.wwf.eu/?8426966/Half-baked-deal-on-carbon-border-levy-missing-key-ingredients
Renew Europe EP Group: Newsroom 13/12/2022: Deal on Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism: historic agreement for the climate and Europe's competitiveness https://www.reneweuropegroup.eu/news/2022-12-13/deal-on-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-historic-agreement-for-the-climate-and-europes-competitiveness
Social Europe, 14/12/2022: Avoiding ‘carbon leakage’—adjustments needed https://www.socialeurope.eu/avoiding-carbon-leakage-adjustments-needed
EurActiv: Opinion, 15/12/2022: CBAM: Can the EU afford to leave global markets to decarbonize? https://www.euractiv.com/section/agriculture-food/opinion/cbam-can-the-eu-afford-to-leave-global-markets-to-decarbonize/
European Tax Blog, 16/12/2022: Provisional agreement reached on the European Union's Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism https://www.europeantax.blog/post/102i3p4/provisional-agreement-reached-on-the-european-unions-carbon-border-adjustment-me
PriceWaterhouseCoopers (PwC): Tax & Legal News, 10/01/2023: EU Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) – what do businesses in the Middle East need to know? https://www.pwc.com/m1/en/services/tax/me-tax-legal-news/2023/eu-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism.html
Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP): Blog, 16/01/2023: Agreement on CBAM: A long way to go https://ieep.eu/news/agreement-on-cbam-a-long-way-to-go/
Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS): Brief, 17/02/2023: Analyzing the European Union’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism https://www.csis.org/analysis/analyzing-european-unions-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism
Oxford Institute for Energy Studies: OIES Podcast, 16/03/2023: Can the EU’s carbon border adjustment mechanism accelerate progress on China’s emissions trading system? https://www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/oies-podcast-can-the-eus-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-accelerate-progress-on-chinas-emissions-trading-system/
White&Case, 16/03/2023: The EU Agreement on a Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism https://www.whitecase.com/insight-alert/eu-agreement-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism
ING Think: Article, 02/05/2023: How the EU’s carbon border tax will affect the global metals trade https://think.ing.com/articles/how-will-the-eus-carbon-border-tax-affect-global-metals-trade/
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: Article, 09/05/2023: A Political Economy Perspective on the EU’s Carbon Border Tax https://carnegieendowment.org/2023/05/09/political-economy-perspective-on-eu-s-carbon-border-tax-pub-89706
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Clyde&Co: Insights, 22/05/2023: The EU Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism – An Update https://www.clydeco.com/en/insights/2023/05/the-eu-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-an-updat
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News
EUObserver, 16/07/2021: EU carbon border tax to target imports from 2026 https://euobserver.com/climate/152460
TIME Magazine, 26/07/2021: John Kerry on Border Carbon Tax: The U.S. Doesn't Want to Push Others Away https://time.com/6084078/john-kerry-border-carbon-mechansim-cbam/
Reuters, 01/09/2021: EU's planned carbon border tax to impact Russia the most - study https://www.reuters.com/business/environment/eus-planned-carbon-border-tax-impact-russia-most-study-2021-09-01/
The Guardian, 28/10/2021: EU carbon border levy could sabotage climate goals, says thinktank https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/oct/28/eu-carbon-border-levy-could-sabotage-climate-goals-says-thinktank
Argus Media, 08/12/2021: Doubts persist on suitability of EU CBAM https://www.argusmedia.com/en/news/2281231-doubts-persist-on-suitability-of-eu-cbam
Politico, 23/12/2021: London mulls carbon border tax with an eye on Brussels https://www.politico.eu/article/carbon-border-tax-carbon-pricing-steve-barclay-carbon-leakage-cbam/
EurActiv, 11/01/2022: Lawmaker drafts ‘complete overhaul’ of EU carbon border levy https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy-environment/news/eu-lawmaker-drafts-complete-overhaul-of-carbon-border-levy/
RFI News, 20/01/2022: EU ministers mull climate policy, carbon border tax https://www.rfi.fr/en/eu-ministers-mull-climate-policy-carbon-border-tax
EurActiv, 15/02/2022: EU in balancing act over carbon border levy, industry concerns https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy-environment/news/eu-in-balancing-act-over-carbon-border-levy-industry-concerns/
EUObserver, 17/05/2022: MEPs raise ambition on EU carbon market reform https://euobserver.com/green-economy/154969
Politico, 13/12/2022: More fights ahead for EU carbon border tax https://www.politico.eu/article/european-union-carbon-border-tax/
Euronews, 18/04/2023: European Parliament approves mega package of EU climate measures https://www.euronews.com/my-europe/2023/04/18/european-parliament-approves-mega-package-of-eu-climate-measures

Official
EUR-LEX: COM(2021)564: Proposal for a Regulation establishing a carbon border adjustment mechanism https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=COM:2021:564:FIN
EUR-LEX: SWD(2021)643: Staff Working Document accompanying the Proposal - Impact Assessment Report https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=SWD:2021:643:FIN
EUR-LEX: SWD(2021)644: Staff Working Document accompanying the Proposal - Executive Summary of the Impact Assessment Report https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=SWD:2021:644:FIN
EUR-LEX: SWD(2021)647: Staff Working Document accompanying the Proposal - Subsidiarity Grid https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=SWD:2021:647:FIN
European Parliament: Legislative Observatory: Procedure File for Proposal on Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism. 'Fit for 55 package' (2021/0214(COD)) https://oeil.secure.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/popups/ficheprocedure.do?reference=2021/0214(COD)
European Parliament: Legislative Train Schedule: Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism as part of the European Green Deal https://www.europarl.europa.eu/legislative-train/theme-a-european-green-deal/file-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism
European Commission: DG Taxation and Customs Union: Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism https://taxation-customs.ec.europa.eu/carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism_en
European Commission: Better Regulation: Have Your Say: EU Green Deal (carbon border adjustment mechanism) https://ec.europa.eu/info/law/better-regulation/have-your-say/initiatives/12228-EU-Green-Deal-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-_en
Norwegian Government: Letter, 02/07/2021: Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism – Preliminary Norwegian Positions https://www.regjeringen.no/en/find-document/dep/FIN/anbud-konsesjoner-og-brev/Publications-in-English-or-translated-in/utvalgte-brev/2021/carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-preliminary-norwegian-positions/id2865475/
European Commission: Press Release, 14/07/2021: European Green Deal: Commission proposes transformation of EU economy and society to meet climate ambitions https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_3541
European Commission: Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism: Questions and Answers (14 July 2021) https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/qanda_21_3661
EPP EP Group: Newsroom, 21/12/2021: De-carbonise, not de-industrialise Europe https://www.eppgroup.eu/newsroom/news/de-carbonise-not-de-industrialise-europe
Norwegian Government: Letter, 02/03/2022: Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism – Norwegian Positions https://www.regjeringen.no/en/find-document/dep/FIN/anbud-konsesjoner-og-brev/Publications-in-English-or-translated-in/utvalgte-brev/2022/carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-norwegian-positions/id2902803/
Council of the European Union: Press Release, 15/03/2022: Council agrees on the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2022/03/15/carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-cbam-council-agrees-its-negotiating-mandate/
European Parliament: Press Release, 17/05/2022: CBAM: MEPs push for higher ambition in new carbon leakage instrument https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/press-room/20220516IPR29647/
European Parliament: Press Release, 22/06/2022: CBAM: Parliament pushes for higher ambition in new carbon leakage instrument https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/press-room/20220603IPR32157/
Council of the European Union: Press Release, 13/12/2022: EU climate action: provisional agreement reached on Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2022/12/13/eu-climate-action-provisional-agreement-reached-on-carbon-border-adjustment-mechanism-cbam/
European Parliament: Press Release, 13/12/2022: Deal reached on new carbon leakage instrument to raise global climate ambition https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/press-room/20221212IPR64509/
European Commission: Press Release, 13/12/2022: European Green Deal: Agreement reached on the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_22_7719
S&D EP Group: Newsroom, 17/04/2023: With CBAM: Full support to our industries as they decarbonise https://www.socialistsanddemocrats.eu/newsroom/cbam-full-support-our-industries-they-decarbonise
European Parliament: Press Release, 18/04/2023: Fit for 55: Parliament adopts key laws to reach 2030 climate target https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/press-room/20230414IPR80120/
Greens/EFA EP Group: Press Release, 18/04/2023: European Parliament approves catalyst for cleaner production https://www.greens-efa.eu/en/article/press/european-parliament-approves-catalyst-for-cleaner-production
Council of the European Union: Press Release, 25/04/2023: 'Fit for 55': Council adopts key pieces of legislation delivering on 2030 climate targets https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2023/04/25/fit-for-55-council-adopts-key-pieces-of-legislation-delivering-on-2030-climate-targets/
European Commission: Press Release, 13/06/2023: The Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism starts applying in its transitional phase as of 1 October: Commission consults on reporting obligations https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_23_3243
European Commission: Press Release, 17/08/2023: Commission adopts detailed reporting rules for the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism's transitional phase https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_23_4186

Wikipedia: Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_Border_Adjustment_Mechanism

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