|Author (Person)||Bobba, Silvia, Huisman, Jacob|
|Author (Corporate)||European Commission: Joint Research Centre|
|Publisher||Publications Office of the European Union|
|Series Title||JRC Thematic Report|
|Publication Date||July 2021|
The current Battery Directive classifies batteries in three groups of portable, automotive and industrial batteries. The newly proposed 2020 Battery Regulation adds electric vehicle (EV) batteries as a new ‘fourth’ category. With the fast rise of LMT batteries in e-bikes and recent new products like monowheels, hoverboards, e-scooters (called e-kick-scooters or e-steps in certain countries) plus larger emopeds (called e-scooters in certain countries) and e-motorcycles, this study investigates the possible need for a ‘fifth category’ of LMT batteries. Due to the technical development of lithium batteries, a significant amount of electrification of light vehicles is expected to appear as well. This trend will likely continue with Li-ion chemistries becoming increasingly cheaper, safer and more versatile.
At this point, it is uncertain how many new LMT applications will appear in the market in the future and how this may affect the collection and recycling stages for portable and EV batteries in particular. With the battery market evolving rapidly, it seems appropriate to reflect on possible options. Moreover, within the current formulation in the legal proposal, there is effectively no collection target applicable for LMT batteries (yet), in contrast to the neighbouring portable and EV categories [...].
This present study first aims to provide the technical background and analysis of the quantities of batteries potentially involved both historically and in the future. For the LMT category, modernising the legal framework requires a closer investigation of the need to update definitions to provide future guidance on which batteries belong to which collection category. At this point in time, the study focuses on the need for legal clarity on the status of LMT batteries, first and foremost from a collection point of view.