Development of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline project

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Publication Date 2015-
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Reports and analyses on the development of the so-called 'Nord Stream 2', a gas project which aims to link Russia and Western Europe while bypassing countries in central and eastern Europe.

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Russia's energy company Gazprom confirmed on 18 June 2015 plans to expand the existing Nord Stream gas pipeline beneath the Baltic Sea and into Germany. An agreement was signed in September between the Russian company and five European energy companies to deliver the pipeline project - E.ON, OMV, Shell, Wintershall and ENGIE.

The project drew deep divisions within the European Union (EU). Central and eastern European countries - led by Poland - argued that such endeavour would undermine the EU's strategic energy interests and violate competition rules. Others - spearheaded by Germany and including the nordic countries - vowed to press forward with the project and defended limited intervention by the European Commission, prioritising the economic benefits of the project. The issue was raised at the European Council summit in December 2015 and during a plenary debate at the European Parliament in May 2016.

In August 2016, following a Statement of Objections from Poland's competition authority, the companies involved in developing the project withdrew their application to form the joint venture. However, Gazprom later stated it still intended to build the pipeline despite the opposition of Polish regulators. In March 2017, the European Commission proposed to settle the legal status of Nord Stream 2 with an intergovernmental agreement between Russia and the European Union, negotiated by the Commission itself on behalf of the EU Member States. The request for a mandate was officially adopted by the Commission on 9 June and discussed by the Council of the European Union at a meeting on 26 June. In May 2018, Poland's competition authority developed further proceedings aimed at preventing monopoly issues related to construction of gas provision through the Nord Stream 2 pipeline.

In November 2017, the Commission put forward a draft law to amend Directive 2009/73/EC [Gas Directive], aiming to ensure all major gas pipelines entering EU territory comply with EU rules. An agreement on the content of the amendment in February 2019 was seen greatly influencing the future of Nord Stream 2. On 25 July, the consortium formally asked the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) to annul the amendments to the Gas Directive.

On 30 October 2019, Denmark's Energy Agency announced it had granted Nord Stream 2 a permit to lay the pipeline across seabed in the country's southeastern territory. The decision was met with criticism from Ukraine and the United States, and praise from Russia. Subsequently, the US put together a set of sanctions against those companies working to complete the project. On 20 December, the United States decided to impose sanctions against companies involved in the project. Despite the potential for delays, Russia's President Vladimir Putin hoped for the conclusion of the project by early 2021.

Related Links
Commentary and Analysis
Wikipedia: Nord Stream 2
EPC: Commentary, 02/07/2015: Nord Stream expansion: what does it mean for Europe?
EUObserver, 12/08/2015: Nord Stream: The Sequel
EPC: Commentary, 09/10/2015: Nord Stream II – Another test for EU unity
Politico, 26/10/2015: Why Nord Stream is another Mistral deal
EurActiv, 03/12/2015: Nord Stream 2: How does Ukraine respond?
Carnegie Europe: Strategic Europe, 10/12/2015: Germany’s Ambiguity Toward Russia and Energy Security
Carnegie Europe: Strategic Europe, 25/01/2016: Germany, Dump Nord Stream 2
LSE: EUROPP Blog, 04/02/2016: Geopolitical storytelling: How Russia’s Nord Stream 2 narrative is served to the public
NUPI: Policy Brief No. 2, 11/02/2016: Nord Stream 2: policy dilemmas and the future of EU gas market
EPRS: At a Glance, April 2016: The Nord Stream 2 pipeline project
EUObserver, 02/05/2016: Empty Gazpromises
OSW: Analyses, 15/06/2016: The EUGAL project: the German branch of Nord Stream 2
OSW: Analyses, 13/07/2016: Gazprom’s negotiations with Eustream on Nord Stream 2
EurActiv, 24/08/2016: Nord Stream 2 faces loss of financial and political support
OSW: Analyses, 21/09/2016: German energy companies lobby for Nord Stream 2
OSW: Commentary, 12/10/2016: The Nordic countries on Nord Stream 2: between scepticism and neutrality
Carnegie Europe: Strategic Europe, 03/11/2016: The (German) Politics of Nord Stream 2
PISM: Bulletin, 27/04/2017: Negotiations between the European Commission and Russia on Nord Stream 2
EPRS: At a Glance, July 2017: Gazprom's controversial Nord Stream 2 pipeline
CER: Insight, 12/01/2018: Nord Stream 2: More hot air than gas?
Carnegie Europe: Strategic Europe, 14/06/2018: Should Germany Dump Nord Stream 2? Can it?
The Economist, 19/07/2018: The Nord Stream 2 pipeline will strengthen Russia’s hand
The Economist, 07/08/2018: Why Nord Stream 2 is the world’s most controversial energy project
CFR, Article, 16/08/2018: Nord Stream 2: Is Germany ‘Captive’ to Russian Energy?
Radio Poland, 03/12/2018: Nord Stream 2 pipeline is Russian ‘weapon against Ukraine’
ECFR: Commentary, 20/12/2018: Nord Stream 2: ECFR opinions
The Economist, 16/02/2019: The Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline moves on
EurActiv, 29/05/2019: Exploring the limits of EU’s unbelievable behaviour on Nord Stream 2
Foreign Policy, 07/10/2019: With Gazprom’s Nord Stream 2, Putin Is Getting Ready to Put the Screws on Europe
Euro|topics, October 2019: Nord Stream 2: a pipeline that divides Europe?
OSW: Analyses, 31/10/2019: Denmark gives go-ahead for construction of Nord Stream 2
Euro|topics, December 2019: US trying to block Nord Stream 2 with sanctions
OSW: Analyses, 18/12/2019: Sanctions against Nord Stream 2 in the US defence budget

Deutsche Welle, 18/06/2015: Gazprom inks plan for new gas pipeline to Germany
EUObserver, 21/06/2015: Pipeline 'disinformation' prompts EU division
EurActiv, 09/09/2015: Duda slams Russia’s second Baltic gas pipeline to Germany
EurActiv, 10/09/2015 Slovak PM calls Nord Stream expansion deal ‘a betrayal’
EurActiv, 12/11/2015: Poland wants EU to ban Nord Stream 2
EurActiv, 17/11/20015: Putin and Gabriel team up on Nord Stream 2 against Brussels
EurActiv, 30/11/2015: Seven EU countries oppose Nord Stream
EurActiv, 04/12/2015: EU leaders to clash over Nord Stream 2 at summit
EUObserver, 08/12/2015: EU summit: Nord Stream sneaks onto agenda
Politico, 16/12/2015: Matteo Renzi’s pipeline politics
Politico, 18/12/2015: Matteo Renzi picks fight with Angela Merkel
EUObserver, 18/12/2015: Tusk: Nord Stream II doesn't help
EurActiv, 18/12/2015: Tusk joins ‘Visegrad Four’ in attack on Nord Stream 2
Politico, 23/12/2015: Russian pipeline plan draws EU fire
Politico, 30/12/2015: Nord Stream 2’s opponents look for legal ammunition
EurActiv, 19/01/2016: Ukraine says opposition to Nord Stream 2 is growing
EurActiv, 01/02/2016: Germany seeks to overcome opposition to Nord Stream 2
Politico, 10/02/2016: Great northern gas war
EurActiv, 24/02/2016: Nord Stream 2 will kill EU’s LNG strategy, warns US ambassador
EurActiv, 25/02/2016: Green MEP denounces Gazprom’s bullying tactics over Nord Stream 2
EUObserver, 17/03/2016: Eastern EU leaders to warn Juncker on Nord Stream II
EurActiv, 20/04/2016: Sefcovic sheds light on Nord Stream 2 negotiations
Sputnik International, 28/04/2016: Work on Nord Stream 2 Goes On in Compliance With EU Legislation - Gazprom
EurActiv, 02/05/2016: EPP takes strong position against Nord Stream 2
EUObserver, 11/05/2016: Nord Stream 2: A killer project
Politico, 17/05/2016: Germany blocks out allies’ wails over Russian pipeline love
Radio Poland, 14/06/2016: Nord Stream 2 project moving along with German support: report
EurActiv, 16/06/2016: Gazprom warns of steep gas transit cuts via Ukraine after 2020
EUObserver, 22/08/2016: Russia to build Nord Stream 2 despite Polish objection
Sputnik International, 16/08/2016: Nord Stream-2 Partners Looking for Alternative Ways to Implement Project
EUObserver, 21/10/2016: Poland presses EU on Russian gas pipeline
EUObserver, 03/11/2016: Nordic states want EU decision on Russia pipeline
EurActiv, 31/01/2017: Sweden ready to provide port for Nord Stream 2 construction
EurActiv, 30/03/2017: EU offers to negotiate Nord Stream 2 on behalf of members
EurActiv, 10/04/2017: Denmark seeks to change law on pipelines amid Nord Stream 2 divisions
Reuters, 09/06/2017: EU executive seeks mandate for talks with Russia over Nord Stream 2
Kyiv Post, 09/06/2017: European Commission requests mandate from EU members for talks with Russia on Nord Stream 2
EurActiv, 09/06/2017: Commission passes the Nord Stream 2 buck to member states
TASS, 11/06/2017: EC receives mandate for talks on Nord Stream with Russia
EurActiv, 14/06/2017: Proposed Nord Stream 2 compromise guarantees Ukraine’s gas transit role
Radio Poland, 26/06/2017: Poland opposes Nord Stream 2 pipeline
EUObserver, 27/06/2017: EU Commission could get say on Russia gas pipeline
Sputnik International, 27/06/2017: Nord Stream 2 Depends on 'Political Bargaining' Between US, EU
Radio Poland, 09/10/2017: Russia may re-route Nord Stream 2: report
Reuters, 09/05/2018: Poland's anti-monopoly office opens proceedings against Nord Stream 2
Kyiv Post, 09/05/2018: Poland brings legal action over Nord Stream 2, threatens partners with fine
EurActiv, 09/05/2018: Poland rolls out big legal gun against Nord Stream 2
EurActiv, 08/06/2018: All eyes on Denmark after Sweden awards Nord Stream 2 permit
Reuters, 09/10/2018: Russia will complete Nord Stream 2 even if more sanctions arrive
EurActiv, 25/10/2018: Nord Stream 2 exposed as Russian weapon against NATO
EurActiv, 04/12/2018: Germany to back Nord Stream 2 despite Ukraine tensions
Reuters, 28/12/2018: Tough to stop Nord Stream 2 now it's being built - EU's Oettinger, 08/01/2019: Dispute over Nord Stream 2 pipeline spreads to the Netherlands
Bloomberg, 20/01/2019: Germany Won't Block Nord Stream Pipeline, Merkel Ally Tells HB
Reuters, 22/01/2019: OMV defends Nord Stream 2, Gasunie supports German LNG terminal
Deutsche Welle, 29/01/2019: Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline to open by November
TASS, 04/03/2019: European Commission intends to negotiate with Russia on Nord Stream 2
Politico, 28/03/2019: Nord Stream 2 runs aground in Denmark
EurActiv, 28/03/2019: Denmark delays Nord Stream 2 approval
Deutsche Welle, 23/06/2019: US lawmakers: Nord Stream 2 'a terrible mistake'
France24, 28/06/2019: Nord Stream 2 'past point of no return': Russia's Gazprom
Copenhagen Post, 01/07/2019: Nord Stream 2 drops plans to establish pipeline through Denmark
TASS, 15/07/2019: Sea part of Nord Stream 2 pipeline is 60% ready
EurActiv, 19/07/2019: Nord Stream 2, EU drifting towards legal arbitration
EurActiv, 26/07/2019: Nord Stream 2 takes unusual legal step against the Commission
Reuters, 26/07/2019: Russia's Nord Stream 2 pipeline takes EU to court over new gas rules
Politico, 26/07/2019: Nord Stream 2 goes to EU court over gas rules
TASS, 26/07/2019: Nord Stream 2 AG requests EU Court of Justice to cancel discriminatory measures
RFI News, 02/10/2019: Nord Stream 2 could change route if blocked by Denmark: Putin
The Moscow Times, 30/10/2019: Denmark Approves Nord Stream 2 Pipeline
Deutsche Welle, 30/10/2019: Denmark gives go-ahead for Nord Stream 2 Russian pipeline segment
Politico, 30/10/2019: Nord Stream 2 clears final hurdle — but delays loom
EurActiv, 30/10/2019: Denmark clears major hurdle for Russia’s Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline
The Local (Denmark), 31/10/2019: Denmark clears way for Russian gas pipeline
Reuters, 31/10/2019: Ukraine decries Nord Stream 2 approval, says it weakens Europe
Copenhagen Post, 31/10/2019: Putin full of praise for Denmark following pipeline approval
BBC News, 31/10/2019: Nord Stream 2: Go-ahead for Russian gas pipeline angers Ukraine
EurActiv, 12/12/2019: Germany tells US to ‘mind its own business’ over Nord Stream 2
Deutsche Welle, 12/12/2019: Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline faces sanctions under US defense bill
EurActiv, 21/12/2019: Germany and EU condemn US sanctions on gas pipeline
BBC News, 21/12/2019: Nord Stream 2: Trump approves sanctions on Russia gas pipeline
Deutsche Welle, 21/12/2019: Germany, EU decry US Nord Stream sanctions
EurActiv, 26/12/2019: Putin warns Washington that Russia has vessel to build Nord Stream 2
Politico, 11/01/2020: Putin hopes for Nord Stream 2 completion by early 2021
Deutsche Welle, 11/01/2020: Angela Merkel and Vladmir Putin push ahead with pipeline
Reuters, 11/01/2020: Putin: Nord Stream 2 pipeline will be finished by year-end or Q1 2021

Official Website of Nord Stream 2 project
European Commission: Speech by Vice-President Maroš Šefčovič on 'Nord Stream II – Energy Union at the crossroads', 6 April 2016
European Parliament: Press Release, 10/05/2016: MEPs voice grave concerns about Nord Stream 2 project
Nord Stream 2: Joint Press Release of ENGIE, Gazprom, OMV, Shell, Uniper, Wintershall and Nord Stream 2 AG, 12 August 2016
European Commission: Press Release, 09/06/2017: Commission seeks a mandate from Member States to negotiate with Russia an agreement on Nord Stream 2
Nord Stream 2: Press Release, 09/06/2017: Company Response to the European Commission Initiative for Negotiations Between the EU and Russia on an Intergovernmental Agreement
UOKiK: News 09/05/2018: UOKiK against Nord Stream 2
Nord Stream 2: News, 25/07/2019: Nord Stream 2 Calls on Court of Justice of the European Union to Annul Discriminatory Measures
Danish Energy Agency: Press Release, 30/10/2019: Permit for the Nord Stream 2 project is granted by the Danish Energy Agency

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