Development of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline project

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Author (Corporate)
Publication Date 2015-
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Summary:

Reports and analyses on the development of the so-called 'Nord Stream 2', a gas project which aims to link Russia and Western Europe while bypassing countries in central and eastern Europe.

Further information:

Russia's energy company Gazprom confirmed on 18 June 2015 plans to expand the existing Nord Stream gas pipeline beneath the Baltic Sea and into Germany. An agreement was signed in September between the Russian company and five European energy companies to deliver the pipeline project - E.ON, OMV, Shell, Wintershall and ENGIE.

The project drew deep divisions within the European Union (EU). Central and eastern European countries - led by Poland - argued that such endeavour would undermine the EU's strategic energy interests and violate competition rules. Others - spearheaded by Germany and including the nordic countries - vowed to press forward with the project and defended limited intervention by the European Commission, prioritising the economic benefits of the project. The issue was raised at the European Council summit in December 2015 and during a plenary debate at the European Parliament in May 2016. The European Commission

In August 2016, following a Statement of Objections from Poland's competition authority, the companies involved in developing the project withdrew their application to form the joint venture. However, Gazprom later stated it still intended to build the pipeline despite the opposition of Polish regulators. In March 2017, the European Commission proposed to settle the legal status of Nord Stream 2 with an intergovernmental agreement between Russia and the European Union, negotiated by the Commission itself on behalf of the EU Member States. The request for a mandate was officially adopted by the Commission on 9 June and discussed by the Council of the European Union at a meeting on 26 June. In November 2017, the Commission put forward a draft law to amend Directive 2009/73/EC [Gas Directive], aiming to ensure all major gas pipelines entering EU territory comply with EU rules. An agreement on the content of the amendment in February 2019 was seen greatly influencing the future of Nord Stream 2.

In May 2018, Poland's competition authority developed further proceedings aimed at preventing monopoly issues related to construction of gas provision through the Nord Stream 2 pipeline.

Related Link(s)
Commentary and Analysis
EPC: Commentary, 02.07.15: Nord Stream expansion: what does it mean for Europe? http://aei.pitt.edu/65784/
EUObserver, 12.08.15: Nord Stream: The Sequel https://euobserver.com/opinion/129873
EPC: Commentary, 09.10.15: Nord Stream II – Another test for EU unity http://aei.pitt.edu/68451/
Politico, 26.10.15: Why Nord Stream is another Mistral deal https://www.politico.eu/article/why-nord-stream-is-another-mistral-deal/
EurActiv, 03.12.15: Nord Stream 2: How does Ukraine respond? https://www.euractiv.com/section/europe-s-east/opinion/nord-stream-2-how-does-ukraine-respond/
Carnegie Europe: Strategic Europe, 10.12.15: Germany’s Ambiguity Toward Russia and Energy Security https://carnegieeurope.eu/strategiceurope/?fa=62243
Carnegie Europe: Strategic Europe, 25.01.16: Germany, Dump Nord Stream 2 https://carnegieeurope.eu/strategiceurope/?fa=62567
LSE European Institute: Europpblog, 04.02.16: Geopolitical storytelling: How Russia’s Nord Stream 2 narrative is served to the public http://bit.ly/1KWXU9p
NUPI: Policy Brief No. 2, 11.02.16: Nord Stream 2: policy dilemmas and the future of EU gas market http://hdl.handle.net/11250/2378856
EPRS: At a Glance, April 2016: The Nord Stream 2 pipeline project http://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/document.html?reference=EPRS_ATA(2016)580875
EUObserver, 02.05.16: Empty Gazpromises https://euobserver.com/opinion/133299
OSW: Analyses, 15.06.16: The EUGAL project: the German branch of Nord Stream 2 https://www.osw.waw.pl/en/publikacje/analyses/2016-06-15/eugal-project-german-branch-nord-stream-2
OSW: Analyses, 13.07.16: Gazprom’s negotiations with Eustream on Nord Stream 2 https://www.osw.waw.pl/en/publikacje/analyses/2016-07-13/gazproms-negotiations-eustream-nord-stream-2
EurActiv, 24.08.16: Nord Stream 2 faces loss of financial and political support https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/opinion/nord-stream-2-faces-loss-of-financial-and-political-support/
OSW: Analyses, 21.09.16: German energy companies lobby for Nord Stream 2 https://www.osw.waw.pl/en/publikacje/analyses/2016-09-21/german-energy-companies-lobby-nord-stream-2
OSW: Commentary, 12.10.16: The Nordic countries on Nord Stream 2: between scepticism and neutrality http://aei.pitt.edu/80603/
Carnegie Europe: Strategic Europe, 03.11.16: The (German) Politics of Nord Stream 2 https://carnegieeurope.eu/strategiceurope/65028
PISM: Bulletin, 27.04.17: Negotiations between the European Commission and Russia on Nord Stream 2 http://www.pism.pl/publications/bulletin/no-41-981
EPRS: At a Glance, July 2017: Gazprom's controversial Nord Stream 2 pipeline http://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/document.html?reference=EPRS_ATA(2017)608629
CER: Insight, 12.01.18: Nord Stream 2: More hot air than gas? https://www.cer.eu/insights/nord-stream-2-more-hot-air-gas
Carnegie Europe: Strategic Europe, 14.06.18: Should Germany Dump Nord Stream 2? Can it? https://carnegieeurope.eu/strategiceurope/76597
Wikipedia: Nord Stream 2 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nord_Stream#Expansion:_Nord_Stream_2
The Economist, 19.07.18: The Nord Stream 2 pipeline will strengthen Russia’s hand https://www.economist.com/business/2018/07/19/the-nord-stream-2-pipeline-will-strengthen-russias-hand
The Economist, 07.08.18: Why Nord Stream 2 is the world’s most controversial energy project https://www.economist.com/the-economist-explains/2018/08/07/why-nord-stream-2-is-the-worlds-most-controversial-energy-project
CFR, Article, 16.08.18: Nord Stream 2: Is Germany ‘Captive’ to Russian Energy? https://www.cfr.org/article/nord-stream-2-germany-captive-russian-energy
ECFR: Commentary, 20.12.18: Nord Stream 2: ECFR opinions https://www.ecfr.eu/article/commentary_nord_stream_2_ecfr_opinions
Radio Poland, 03.12.18: Nord Stream 2 pipeline is Russian ‘weapon against Ukraine’ http://www.thenews.pl/1/10/Artykul/395137
The Economist, 16/02/2019: The Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline moves on https://www.economist.com/europe/2019/02/16/the-nord-stream-2-gas-pipeline-moves-on

News
Deutsche Welle, 18.06.15: Gazprom inks plan for new gas pipeline to Germany https://p.dw.com/p/1FjH2
EUObserver, 21.06.15: Pipeline 'disinformation' prompts EU division https://euobserver.com/foreign/129210
EurActiv, 09.09.15: Duda slams Russia’s second Baltic gas pipeline to Germany https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/duda-slams-russia-s-second-baltic-gas-pipeline-to-germany/
EurActiv, 10.09.15: Slovak PM calls Nord Stream expansion deal ‘a betrayal’ https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/slovak-pm-calls-nord-stream-expansion-deal-a-betrayal/
EurActiv, 12.11.15: Poland wants EU to ban Nord Stream 2 https://www.euractiv.com/section/europe-s-east/news/poland-wants-eu-to-ban-nord-stream-2/
EurActiv, 17.11.15: Putin and Gabriel team up on Nord Stream 2 against Brussels https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/putin-and-gabriel-team-up-on-nord-stream-2-against-brussels/
EurActiv, 30.11.15: Seven EU countries oppose Nord Stream https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/seven-eu-countries-oppose-nord-stream/
EurActiv, 04.12.15: EU leaders to clash over Nord Stream 2 at summit https://www.euractiv.com/section/europe-s-east/news/eu-leaders-to-clash-over-nord-stream-2-at-summit/
EUObserver, 08.12.15: EU summit: Nord Stream sneaks onto agenda https://euobserver.com/economic/131430
Politico, 16.12.15: Matteo Renzi’s pipeline politics https://www.politico.eu/article/matteo-renzi-pipeline-politics-energy-south-stream-germany-russia-dependency/
Politico, 18.12.15: Matteo Renzi picks fight with Angela Merkel https://www.politico.eu/article/matteo-renzi-picks-fight-with-angela-merkel-brussels-summit-eurozone-pipeline/
EUObserver, 18.12.15: Tusk: Nord Stream II doesn't help https://euobserver.com/energy/131605
EurActiv, 18.12.15: Tusk joins ‘Visegrad Four’ in attack on Nord Stream 2 https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/tusk-joins-visegrad-four-in-attack-on-nord-stream-2/
Politico, 23.12.15: Russian pipeline plan draws EU fire https://www.politico.eu/article/nord-stream-donald-tusk-eu-council-italy-central-eastern-europe-russia-gazprom/
Politico, 30.12.15: Nord Stream 2’s opponents look for legal ammunition https://www.politico.eu/article/nord-stream-2s-opponents-look-for-legal-ammunition/
EurActiv, 19.01.16: Ukraine says opposition to Nord Stream 2 is growing https://www.euractiv.com/section/europe-s-east/news/ukraine-says-opposition-to-nord-stream-2-is-growing/
EurActiv, 01.02.16: Germany seeks to overcome opposition to Nord Stream 2 https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/germany-seeks-to-overcome-opposition-to-nord-stream-2/
Politico, 10.02.16: Great northern gas war https://www.politico.eu/article/the-great-northern-gas-war-nordstream-pipeline-gazprom-putin-ukraine-russia/
EurActiv, 24.02.16: Nord Stream 2 will kill EU’s LNG strategy, warns US ambassador https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/nord-stream-2-will-kill-eus-lng-strategy-warns-us-ambassador/
EurActiv, 25.02.16: Green MEP denounces Gazprom’s bullying tactics over Nord Stream 2 https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/green-mep-denounces-gazproms-bullying-tactics-over-nord-stream-2/
EUObserver, 17.03.16: Eastern EU leaders to warn Juncker on Nord Stream II https://euobserver.com/foreign/132726
EurActiv, 20.04.16: Sefcovic sheds light on Nord Stream 2 negotiations https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/sefcovic-sheds-light-on-nord-stream-2-negotiations/
Sputnik International, 28.04.16: Work on Nord Stream 2 Goes On in Compliance With EU Legislation - Gazprom https://sptnkne.ws/kGrY
EurActiv, 02.05.16: EPP takes strong position against Nord Stream 2 https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/epp-takes-strong-position-against-nord-stream-2/
EUObserver, 11.05.16: Nord Stream 2: A killer project https://euobserver.com/opinion/133401
Politico, 17.05.16: Germany blocks out allies’ wails over Russian pipeline love https://www.politico.eu/article/germany-shrugs-over-nord-stream-fuss/
Radio Poland, 14.06.16: Nord Stream 2 project moving along with German support: report http://www.thenews.pl/1/10/Artykul/257101
EurActiv, 16.06.16: Gazprom warns of steep gas transit cuts via Ukraine after 2020 https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/gazprom-warns-of-steep-gas-transit-cuts-via-ukraine-after-2020/
EUObserver, 22.08.16: Russia to build Nord Stream 2 despite Polish objection https://euobserver.com/economic/134694
Sputnik International, 16.08.16: Nord Stream-2 Partners Looking for Alternative Ways to Implement Project https://sptnkne.ws/kGsp
EUObserver, 21.10.16: Poland presses EU on Russian gas pipeline https://euobserver.com/foreign/135608
EUObserver, 03.11.16: Nordic states want EU decision on Russia pipeline https://euobserver.com/nordic/135739
EurActiv, 31.01.17: Sweden ready to provide port for Nord Stream 2 construction https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/sweden-ready-to-provide-port-for-nord-stream-2-construction/
EurActiv, 30.03.17: EU offers to negotiate Nord Stream 2 on behalf of members https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/eu-offers-to-negotiate-nord-stream-2-on-behalf-of-members/
EurActiv, 10.04.17: Denmark seeks to change law on pipelines amid Nord Stream 2 divisions https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/denmark-seeks-to-change-law-on-pipelines-amid-nord-stream-2-divisions/
Reuters, 09.06.17: EU executive seeks mandate for talks with Russia over Nord Stream 2 https://uk.reuters.com/article/idUKKBN1901ZJ
Kyiv Post, 09.06.17: European Commission requests mandate from EU members for talks with Russia on Nord Stream 2 https://www.kyivpost.com/russia/european-commission-requests-mandate-eu-members-talks-russia-nord-stream-2.html
EurActiv, 09.06.17: Commission passes the Nord Stream 2 buck to member states https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/commission-passes-the-nord-stream-2-buck-to-member-states/
TASS, 11.06.17: EC receives mandate for talks on Nord Stream with Russia http://tass.com/economy/950915
EurActiv, 14.06.17: Proposed Nord Stream 2 compromise guarantees Ukraine’s gas transit role https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/proposed-nord-stream-2-compromise-guarantees-ukraines-gas-transitrole/
Radio Poland, 26.06.17: Poland opposes Nord Stream 2 pipeline http://www.thenews.pl/1/6/Artykul/313490
EUObserver, 27.06.17: EU Commission could get say on Russia gas pipeline https://euobserver.com/foreign/138362
Sputnik International, 27.06.17: Nord Stream 2 Depends on 'Political Bargaining' Between US, EU https://sptnkne.ws/eJRX
Radio Poland, 09.10.17: Russia may re-route Nord Stream 2: report http://www.thenews.pl/1/10/Artykul/329578
Reuters, 09.05.18: Poland's anti-monopoly office opens proceedings against Nord Stream 2 https://www.reuters.com/article/idUSKBN1IA1FC
Kyiv Post, 09.05.18: Poland brings legal action over Nord Stream 2, threatens partners with fine https://www.kyivpost.com/ukraine-politics/poland-brings-legal-action-nord-stream-2-threatens-partners-fine.html
EurActiv, 09.05.18: Poland rolls out big legal gun against Nord Stream 2 https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/poland-rolls-out-big-legal-gun-against-nord-stream-2/
EurActiv, 08.06.18: All eyes on Denmark after Sweden awards Nord Stream 2 permit https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/all-eyes-on-denmark-after-sweden-awards-nord-stream-2-permit/
Reuters, 09.10.18: Russia will complete Nord Stream 2 even if more sanctions arrive https://www.reuters.com/article/idUSKCN1MJ2C3
EurActiv, 25.10.18: Nord Stream 2 exposed as Russian weapon against NATO https://www.euractiv.com/section/defence-and-security/news/nord-stream-2-exposed-as-russian-weapon-against-nato/
EurActiv, 04.12.18: Germany to back Nord Stream 2 despite Ukraine tensions https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/germany-to-back-nord-stream-2-despite-ukraine-tensions/
Reuters, 28.12.18: Tough to stop Nord Stream 2 now it's being built - EU's Oettinger https://www.reuters.com/article/idUSKCN1OR0YF
Dutchnews.nl, 08.01.19: Dispute over Nord Stream 2 pipeline spreads to the Netherlands https://www.dutchnews.nl/news/2019/01/dispute-over-nord-stream-2-pipeline-spreads-to-the-netherlands/
Bloomberg, 20.01.19: Germany Won't Block Nord Stream Pipeline, Merkel Ally Tells HB https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-01-20/germany-won-t-block-nord-stream-pipeline-merkel-ally-tells-hb
Reuters, 22.01.19: OMV defends Nord Stream 2, Gasunie supports German LNG terminal https://www.reuters.com/article/idUSKCN1PG2D9
Deutsche Welle, 29.01.19: Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline to open by November https://p.dw.com/p/3CMvC
TASS, 04/03/2019: European Commission intends to negotiate with Russia on Nord Stream 2 http://tass.com/economy/1047356
Politico, 28/03/2019: Nord Stream 2 runs aground in Denmark https://www.politico.eu/article/nord-stream-2-runs-aground-in-denmark/
EurActiv, 28/03/2019: Denmark delays Nord Stream 2 approval https://www.euractiv.com/section/global-europe/news/denmark-delays-nord-stream-2-approval/

Official
European Commission: Speech by Vice-President Maroš Šefčovič on 'Nord Stream II – Energy Union at the crossroads', 6 April 2016 http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-16-1283_en.htm
European Parliament: Press Release, 10.05.16: MEPs voice grave concerns about Nord Stream 2 project http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/press-room/20160509IPR26345/
Nord Stream 2: Joint Press Release of ENGIE, Gazprom, OMV, Shell, Uniper, Wintershall and Nord Stream 2 AG, 12 August 2016 https://www.nord-stream2.com/media-info/news-events/joint-press-release-of-engie-gazprom-omv-shell-uniper-wintershall-and-nord-stream-2-ag-22/
European Commission: Press Release, 09.06.17: Commission seeks a mandate from Member States to negotiate with Russia an agreement on Nord Stream 2 http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-1571_en.htm
Nord Stream 2: Press Release, 09.06.17: Company Response to the European Commission Initiative for Negotiations Between the EU and Russia on an Intergovernmental Agreement https://www.nord-stream2.com/media-info/news-events/company-response-to-the-european-commission-initiative-for-negotiations-between-the-eu-and-russia-on-an-intergovernmental-agreement-55/
UOKiK: News 09.05.18: UOKiK against Nord Stream 2 https://www.uokik.gov.pl/news.php?news_id=14323
Website: Nord Stream 2 https://www.nord-stream2.com/

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