Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania: Background and U.S.-Baltic Relations

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Series Details R46139
Publication Date September 2022
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Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, often referred to as the Baltic states, are democracies and close U.S. allies. Strong U.S. relations with these three states are rooted in history. The United States
never recognized the Soviet Union’s forcible incorporation of the Baltic states in 1940, and U.S. officials applauded the restoration of their independence in 1991. Congress backed these policies on a bipartisan basis. The United States supported the Baltic states’ accession to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) in 2004. Especially since Russia’s initial invasion of Ukraine in 2014, potential threats posed to the Baltic states by Russia have been a primary driver of increased U.S. and congressional interest in the region.

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This Report was first published in December 2019 and subsequently updated. The latest update was published in September 2022. All updates can be checked on the Primary Source link provided below.

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