From Soviet Republics to EU Member States. A legal and political assessment of the Baltic States’ Accession to the EU

Author (Person)
Series Title
Publication Date 2008
ISBN 978-90-04-16945-6
ISSN 1875-0451
Content Type

From Soviet Republics to EU Member States addresses the legal and political challenges surrounding the EU accession of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Based upon a profound analysis of the Baltic States’ historic development and international legal status, this book examines the gradual development of bilateral relations between the EU and each of the Baltic countries. It discusses the strategic policy choices made in the EU’s fifth enlargement wave and the consequences of its pre-accession strategies. Specific attention is devoted to the impact of enlargement on the triangular relationship between the EU, the Baltic States and Russia. Finally, the constitutional changes within the Baltic States and within the European Union itself are taken into account.


Part 1 I : The Baltic States in Europe: Historical, Legal and Geopolitical Context
Chapter 1. A Struggle for Dominance: From the Northern Crusades to the Russian Empire
Chapter 2. The Creation of Independent Baltic Republics
Chapter 3. 1920-1940: The Years of Independence
Chapter 4. Incorporation into the Soviet Union
Chapter 5. 1985-1991: National Reawakening and the Restoration of Independence
Chapter 6. Defining the International Legal Status of the Baltic States: State Continuity or State Succession?
Conclusions: The Determinant Role of the Baltic States’ History and International Legal Status

Part II: The Legal Framework of Relations between the EC/EU and the Baltic States before Accession to the EU
Chapter 1. The Incremental Making of the EC’s Ostpolitik: Towards a Policy of Differentiation
Chapter 2. Integrating the Baltic States in the EC/EU’s External Policies
Chapter 3. Catching up with the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe
Chapter 4. Consequences for the Internal Legal Order of the Baltic States
Chapter 5. The Emergence of an EU Policy towards the Baltic Sea Region: Characteristics and Limitations
Chapter 6. Explaining the Development of EC/EU-Baltic Relations: Internal and External Factors
Conclusions: The Baltic States and the European Union: Assessment of the Evolving Relationship

Part III: The Baltic States and the EU’s Pre-Accession Strategies
Chapter 1. The Legal Framework of EU Enlargement
Chapter 2. The Introduction of a ‘Pre-Accession Strategy’
Chapter 3. The Dilemmas of Differentiation between the Candidate Countries
Chapter 4. The ‘Enhanced Pre-Accession Strategy’: Reconciling Inclusion and Differentiation
Chapter 5. Preparing for Enlargement: Reconciling Widening and Deepening
Conclusions: Characteristics of the EU’s Enlargement Methodology and Pre-accession Strategies

Part IV: The Accession Negotiations: A Post-Factum Analysis
Chapter 1. The Legal Framework of EU Accession Negotiations
Chapter 2. Accession Negotiations in Practice: The Case of the Baltic States
Chapter 3. Drafting the Treaty of Accession
Conclusions: The Treaty of Accession and Differentiation in the EU

Part V: The Impact of EU Enlargement on the Triangular Relationship between the EU, Russia and the Baltic States
Chapter 1. Towards a New Approach in EU-Russia Relations?
Chapter 2. Remaining Challenges in Baltic-Russian Relations
Chapter 3. The Role of the Baltic States in the EU’s Relations with Russia
Conclusions: EU Enlargement as a “Deus ex Machina”?

Part VI: The Constitutional Consequences of EU Enlargement: Developments at the National and European Level
Chapter 1. The Adaptation of the Baltic States’ Legal Systems
Chapter 2. The Role of the Baltic States in the Process of European Constitutionalisation
Conclusions: The Constitutional Challenges after Enlargement

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