Is European defence missing its moment?

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Publication Date January 2023
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Russia’s attack on Ukraine forced Europeans to do more for their own defence. However, Europe’s defence potential  remained hobbled by fragmentation and lack of co-ordination. To change that, the EU would need to spend more through instruments like the EDF (European Defence Fund) and EDIRPA/EDIP (European defence investment programme). The Union should also recognise that non-EU partners are vital contributors to European defence. The best way to show that EU defence co-operation was not disguised protectionism, and convince all member-states of its potential, would have been to open participation in EU programmes to non-EU partners who shared the Union’s values and interests.

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