25th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 25), 2-13 December 2019

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COP25 is the informal name for the 25th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The 2019 UN climate change conference (COP25) is held from 2 to 13 December 2019 in Madrid (Spain), under the Presidency of the Government of Chile. Chile was supposed to be the original host country for COP25 but later withdrew due to social unrest. COP25 was set to focus on energy transition, as well as the Ocean as a key theme in the context of the fight against climate change.

The main objective of the Chile Presidency at COP25 is to discuss next year's targets where countries have committed at COP21 in Paris in 2015 to submit new and updated national climate action plans by 2020. It also focused on the use of international carbon markets, covered in Article 6 of the Paris climate accord with the priority to establish rules for carbon markets.

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The Conference of the Parties (COP) is the supreme body of the UNFCCC Convention. It consists of the representatives of the Parties to the Convention. It holds its sessions every year. The COP takes decisions which are necessary to ensure the effective implementation of the provisions of the Convention and regularly reviews the implementation of these provisions.

Ahead of the COP25, EU's countries took several resolutions. Indeed, the Council of the European Union adopted on 4 October the European Union's position for the negotiations to be held in the context of this climate conference. On 6 November the European Parliament's, Environment Committee adopted a draft Resolution on the EU's position at the COP25, which was approved during the plenary session on 28 November. The same day the Parliament also approved a resolution declaring a climate and environmental emergency in Europe and globally.

After two extra days of negotiations, a deal was reached on 15 December. The agreement was meant to improve carbon cutting plan, but it was nonetheless met with disappointment by different stakeholders. Participants failed to reach a consensus in many areas, including rules to set up a global carbon trading system and the financial assistance needed for poor countries to cope with the impacts of climate change. UN secretary general António Guterres said he was 'disappointed' with the results of COP25.

Related Link(s)
Commentary and Analysis
World Ressources Institute, 25/11/2019: 4 Priorities for the COP25 Climate Conference in Madrid https://www.wri.org/blog/2019/11/cop25-climate-conference-priorities
SDG: UNFCCC COP 25 http://sdg.iisd.org/events/unfccc-cop-25/
Wikipedia: 2019 United Nations Climate Change Conference https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2019_United_Nations_Climate_Change_Conference
Amnesty International, 31/10/2019: Chile: Decision to cancel APEC and COP25 will not divert the international community's attention from human rights violations https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2019/10/chile-decision-cancelar-apec-y-cop25-no-desviara-atencion/
EPRS: Studies, November 2019: International Climate Negotiations - Issues at stake in view of the COP25 UN Climate Change Conference in Madrid https://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/document.html?reference=IPOL_STU(2019)642344
Euronews, 02/12/2019: COP25: Are countries implementing their Paris agreement pledges? https://www.euronews.com/2019/12/02/cop25-are-countries-implementing-their-paris-agreement-pledges
The Guardian, 02/12/2019: Climate crisis: what is COP and can it save the world? https://www.theguardian.com/news/2019/dec/02/climate-crisis-what-is-cop-and-can-it-save-the-world
Euro|topics, December 2019: COP25 in Madrid: how can a rethink succeed? https://www.eurotopics.net/en/231562/
Euronews, 10/12/2019: What are carbon markets and why are they the talk of COP25 in Madrid? https://www.euronews.com/2019/12/10/what-are-carbon-markets-and-why-are-they-the-talk-of-cop25-in-madrid
Politico, 10/12/2019: Failure to get tough on emissions rules undermines Paris climate pact https://www.politico.eu/article/failure-to-get-tough-on-emissions-rules-undermines-paris-climate-pact/
The Guardian, 15/12/2019: The UN climate talks are over for another year – was anything achieved? https://www.theguardian.com/science/2019/dec/15/cop25-un-climate-talks-over-for-another-year-was-anything-achieved
The Economist, 15/12/2019: COP25, the UN climate talks in Madrid, ends in a sad splutter https://www.economist.com/science-and-technology/2019/12/15/cop25-the-un-climate-talks-in-madrid-ends-in-a-sad-splutter
The Irish Times, 16/12/2019: The Irish Times view on COP25: A gross dereliction of duty https://www.irishtimes.com/opinion/editorial/the-irish-times-view-on-cop25-a-gross-dereliction-of-duty-1.4116286

BBC News: 25th Conference of the Parties (COP25) https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/topics/cgdwpywgeegt/cop25
Euractiv, December 2019: COP25: Countries pressed to deliver https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/special_report/cop25-countries-pressed-to-deliver/
France 24, 30/10/19: Chile pulls out of hosting APEC and COP 25 due to protests https://www.france24.com/en/20191030-chile-pulls-out-of-hosting-apec-and-cop-25-due-to-protests
BBC News, 31/10/2019: Climate change: Spain offers to host COP25 in Madrid https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-50255460
Deutsche Welle, 31/10/2019: Madrid offers to host COP25 after Chile pulls out https://p.dw.com/p/3SJfA
France24, 01/11/2019: UN says COP25 climate talks will take place in Spain in December https://www.france24.com/en/20191101-un-says-cop25-climate-talks-will-take-place-in-spain-in-december
Climate Change News, 01/11/19: Madrid to host Cop25 climate talks in December after Chile withdraws https://www.climatechangenews.com/2019/11/01/madrid-host-cop25-un-climate-talks/
El País, 01/11/2019: Madrid to host UN climate summit after Chile cancels amid protests https://elpais.com/elpais/2019/11/01/inenglish/1572600094_630306.html
The Guardian, 01/11/2019: Chile climate pullout prompts tears from young activists sailing Atlantic https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/nov/01/chile-climate-cop-25-conference-summit-atlantic
Forbes, 04/11/2019: Madrid To Organize UN COP25 In Record Time https://www.forbes.com/sites/anagarciavaldivia/2019/11/04/madrid-to-organize-un-cop25-in-record-time/#4675b7b52354
Euronews, 03/12/2019: COP25 in Madrid: UN Secretary-General Guterres says planet is 'close to a point of no return https://www.euronews.com/2019/12/02/live-un-leaders-and-delegates-arrive-in-madrid-for-the-climate-change-summit
Deutsche Welle, 02/12/2019: COP25: 200 countries pledge 'green revolution' https://p.dw.com/p/3U7Mq
Politico, 09/12/2019: UN climate talks sputter on carbon market disputes https://www.politico.eu/article/un-climate-talks-sputter-on-carbon-market-disputes/
The Guardian, 09/12/2019: COP25 climate summit: what happened during the first week? https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/dec/09/cop25-climate-summit-what-happened-during-first-week
Euronews, 10/12/2019: 'COP25 is a failure', say climate activists https://www.euronews.com/2019/12/10/cop25-is-a-failure-say-climate-activists
BBC News, 15/12/2019: COP25: Longest climate talks end with compromise deal https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-50799905
Reuters, 15/12/2019; Major states snub calls for climate action as U.N. summit wraps up https://uk.reuters.com/article-idUKKBN1YJ09L
Politico, 15/12/2019: United Nations climate talks collapse after Trump shuns Paris pact https://www.politico.com/news/2019/12/15/united-nations-climate-talks-collapse-after-trump-shuns-paris-pact-085464
Euractiv, 16/12/2019: Europe ‘disappointed’ with COP25’s mediocre outcome https://www.euractiv.com/section/climate-environment/news/europe-disappointed-with-cop25s-mediocre-outcome/
Euronews, 16/12/2019: COP25 talks end with no deal on carbon markets https://www.euronews.com/2019/12/14/cop25-climate-conference-extended-after-failure-to-reach-agreement

United Nations Climate Change: UN Climate Change Conference - December 2019 https://unfccc.int/cop25
European Commission: Madrid Climate Change Conference (COP 25) https://ec.europa.eu/clima/events/madrid-climate-change-conference-cop-25_en
Council of the European Union: 04/10/2019: The Council sets out EU position for UN climate conference in Santiago de Chile (COP25) https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2019/10/04/the-council-sets-out-the-eu-position-for-the-un-climate-conference-in-santiago-de-chile-cop25/
European Parliament: Press Release, 06/11/2019: COP25: MEPs push for CO2 neutrality by 2050 https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/press-room/20191105IPR65866/
European Parliament: Press Release, 29/11/2019: The European Parliament declares climate emergency https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/press-room/20191121IPR67110/
European Parliament: Legislative Observatory: Procedure File for Resolution on the climate and environment emergency https://oeil.secure.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/popups/ficheprocedure.do?reference=2019/2930(RSP)&l=en
European Commission: Speech by President von der Leyen on the occasion of the COP25 in Madrid https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/speech_19_6651
COP 25 Chile/Madrid 2019 https://www.cop25.cl/#/
European Council: Meeting: UN climate change conference (COP 25), 2 December 2019 https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/meetings/international-summit/2019/12/02/
UN News: 10/12/2019: Deliver ‘significant results now’, UN General Assembly President tells COP25 climate conference https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/12/1053141
European Commission: Executive Vice-President Valdis Dombrovskis' statement at the COP 25 joint high-level Sustainable Finance event, 10 December 2019 https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_19_6730
European Commission: Statement by executive vice-president Frans Timmermans on behalf of the European Union at the Opening Plenary of the Ministerial Segment of COP25 https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/speech_19_6733
United Nations: News, 15/12/2019: Progress made at COP25, despite lack of agreement to increase climate ambition https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/12/1053561
European Commission: Closing statement by the Finnish Presidency and the European Commission on behalf of the EU and its Member States at COP25 https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/statement_19_6779

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