Hungarian parliamentary election, April 2022

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Publication Date 2022
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Information Guide concerning the legislative election held in Hungary on 3 April 2022.

Further information:

Hungarians were called to elect 199 members of Hungary's National Assembly. These are elected in single-member constituencies by first-past-the-post voting (106) and a single nationwide constituency mostly by proportional representation (93), via a partially compensatory system. The electoral threshold is set at 5%, although this is raised to 10% for coalitions of two parties and 15% for coalitions of three or more parties.

Prime Minister Viktor Orbán and his far-right Fidesz party were challenged by an electoral alliance comprising many of the main opposition parties in Hungary from across the spectrum. This platform vowed to break the incumbent's political dominance, in place since 2010. In this context, a primary election was held in September and October 2021 to elect the leading candidate of the alliance. Péter Márki-Zay was eventually elected to run for the prime ministerial office.

The electoral campaign was strongly influenced by Russia's invasion of Ukraine, not only because Hungary received thousands of refugees escaping from the way but also because Mr Orbán and his government have traditionally been seen as close to the Russian authorities. A referendum was scheduled to be held at the same time as this election, focusing on sexual education of children.

The first electoral results confirmed that Fidesz had renewed its super-majority in Parliament and Prime Minister Viktor Orbán a new mandate. On the other hand, the referendum initiated by the government did not have a valid result as less than half of the voters did not cast a valid vote.

Related Links
Commentary and Analysis
International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES): Elections in Hungary: 2022 Parliamentary elections
Euro|topics: Dossier: Hungarian parliamentary elections 2022
Wikipedia: 2022 Hungarian parliamentary election
Emerging Europe: Tag: Hungary Parliamentary Election 2022
Central Europe Institute (IES): Commentary, 07/12/2021: Hungary to hold referendum and elections on same day in 2022
Centre for European Policy Analysis (CEPA), 24/01/2022: Hungary Election: Putting Orbán Under the Microscope
Project Syndicate: Commentary, 16/02/2022: Hungary's Freedom Election
The Economist: Europe, 17/02/2022: Hungary for change. As Orban runs for re-election, Hungary’s opposition fears fraud
LSE: EUROPP Blog, 21/02/2022: Orbán’s great power politics
Chatham House: Event Transcript, 26/01/2022: The Hungarian election and its significance for Europe. In conversation with Péter Márki-Zay, the Hungarian opposition’s candidate for prime minister.
Human Rights Watch (HRW): News, 04/03/2022: Hungary: Smear Campaign Targets Critical Voices
Robert Schuman Foundation: European Elections Monitor: Analysis, 08/03/2022: Viktor Orban, who has been in power for twelve years, remains the favourite in the Hungarian general elections on April 3
Balkan Insight: Analysis, 14/03/2022: War in Ukraine turns Hungary election campaign on its head
Foreign Policy: Dispatch, 14/03/2022: Hungary’s Orban Pivots Away From Putin as Elections Loom
Heinrich Böll Foundation (Prague): Analysis, 25/03/2022: Orbán could win the election - and lose the world
Reuters: Analysis, 25/03/2022: Pre-election spending could haunt Hungary's Orban - or his successor
German Marshall Fund of the United States (GMFUS): Insights, 28/03/2022: The Implications of Hungary’s Elections for its Euro-Atlantic Partners
Freedom House: Perspectives, 30/03/2022: Hungary’s Inflection Election
European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR): Commentary, 31/03/2022: Alignment or isolation: Hungary’s foreign policy after its parliamentary election
openDemocracy: Analysis, 01/04/2022: Orbán is headed for victory at Hungary’s elections. So what comes next?
The Economist: Europe, 02/04/2022: Hungary’s opposition struggles to beat Viktor Orban’s stealth autocracy
European Policy Centre (EPC): Event, 04/04/2022: The result of the Hungarian election: What it means for Hungary and the EU [via Youtube]
The Guardian: Opinion, 04/04/2022: Orbán’s victory in Hungary adds to the darkness engulfing Europe
RFE/RL, 04/04/2022: Six Takeaways From Fidesz And Orban's Big Hungarian Election Win
Project Syndicate: Commentary, 04/04/2022: Hungary's Manipulated Election
Deutsche Welle: Opinion, 04/04/2022: Orban needs to change course in Hungary
Euronews, 04/04/2022: 'A victory so big you can see it from the moon... and Brussels,' says Hungary's Viktor Orban
The Conversation, 04/04/2022: Viktor Orbán: Hungary’s controversial authoritarian prime minister secures yet another term in national election
Human Rights Watch (HRW): News, 05/04/2022: Hungary: Ruling Party’s Lock On Power Threatens EU
Robert Schuman Foundation: European Elections Monitor: Results, 05/04/2022: Viktor Orban wins for the fourth time in a row in Hungary's general elections
Carnegie Europe: Strategic Europe, 05/04/2022: Hungary Enters a New Era of Autocracy
The Conversation, 05/04/2022: Hungary: election triumph for Viktor Orbán is a warning to progressive parties seeking a marriage of convenience with the far right
Project Syndicate: Commentary, 05/04/2022: Why Orbán Won Again
Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI): The Strategist, 05/04/2022: Manipulated election entrenches Hungary’s autocracy
Center for European Policy Analysis (CEPA), 07/04/2022: Triumphant Orbán Thumbs his Nose at the West
EurActiv: Opinion, 08/04/2022: Political lessons from the latest Hungarian elections
Reuters: Explainer, 08/04/2022: What will the EU do about Hungary's Orban?
Balkan Insight: Review, 08/04/2022: Democracy Digest: Aftermath of Hungary election
The Economist, 09/04/2022: Viktor Orban’s victory is a triumph for illiberal nationalism
RFI News, 09/04/2022: What can Europe learn from Orban's victory in Hungary's elections?
UK House of Commons Library: Research Briefing, 11/04/2022: Hungary: 2022 general election
Friedrich Ebert Foundation: IPS Journal, 11/04/2022: Interview: ‘Hungary stopped being a democracy some time ago’
Euronews, 12/04/2022: Soul searching for Hungary’s once 'neo-Nazi' Jobbik party
German Council on Foreign Relations (DGAP): Online Commentary, 13/04/2022: Hungary's post-election balancing act
Centre for Eastern Studies (OSW): Commentary, 15/04/2022: Electoral triumph for Fidesz, but a difficult term ahead
IPPR Journal, 16/04/2022: How Putin’s War Influenced an Election
Transparency International (Hungary): News, 19/04/2022: Orban’s Fidesz to overspend in Hungary’s election campaign
Foreign Policy: Argument, 21/04/2022: Hungary Is an Outlier in Eastern Europe’s Liberal Future
The Atlantic: Letters, 22/04/2022: Hungary Defends Orbán’s Reelection
Europe Elects: Articles, 03/05/2022: Orbán, the Irresistible: How Hungary’s Strongman Won Big Again

Hungary Today: Tag: 2022 General Elections
EurActiv: Topics: Hungary general elections 2022
Politico: Tag: Hungarian election 2022
Euronews: Tag: Hungary Election 2022
Reuters, 11/01/2022: Hungary sets April 3 election with PM Orban facing united opposition
RFE/RL, 11/01/2022: Hungary Sets Vote For April With Orban Facing Tight Race
Deutsche Welle, 13/01/2022: Hungary: Civil society groups request election observers
RFE/RL, 03/02/2022: Brussels Will Have Little Recourse If Hungarian Elections Aren't Free And Fair, EU Official Tells RFE/RL
EUObserver, 04/02/2022: Hungarian election will need scrutiny 'at all levels'
BBC News, 16/02/2022: Hungarian election: Orban faces toughest race so far
Associated Press, 15/03/2022: War in Ukraine is center stage at Hungary’s election rallies
The Guardian, 23/03/2022: Orbán casts himself as safe choice as ‘cruel, bloody war’ looms over Hungary’s election
RFI News, 26/03/2022: A week before elections, Hungary's Orban remains the EU's enfant terrible
France24, 01/04/2022: Hungarian PM Orban faces stern test in parliamentary election
Associated Press, 03/04/2022: Hungary’s pro-Putin PM Orban claims victory in national vote
Deutsche Welle, 03/04/2022: Hungary: Orban declares victory in parliamentary election
The Guardian, 03/04/2022: Viktor Orbán wins fourth consecutive term as Hungary’s prime minister
BBC News, 04/04/2022: Hungary election: PM Viktor Orban criticises Ukraine's Zelensky as he wins vote
Reuters, 04/04/2022: Orban scores crushing victory as Ukraine war solidifies support
BBC News, 04/04/2022: Hungary election: Viktor Orban's victory hailed by Putin
Reuters, 04/04/2022: Orban's victory puts Hungary on collision course with EU
Politico, 04/04/2022: Hungarian election wasn’t a fair fight, observers say
Associated Press, 04/04/2022: Hungary’s Orban popular at home, isolated abroad after win
Hungary Today, 04/04/2022: Referendum on “Child Protection” Invalid
Hungary Today, 05/04/2022: OSCE: Hungary Elections Well-Run but Did Not Offer Level Playing Field
Budapest Business Journal (BBJ), 20/04/2022: President calls inaugural session of parliament on May 2

Official Website of Hungary's National Election Office
OSCE: ODIHR: Hungary: Parliamentary Elections and Referendum, 3 April 2022

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