The European Intervention Initiative (EI2)

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Series Details No.8432 (31.10.18)
Publication Date 30/10/2018
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The European Intervention Initiative (EI2) was a French-led initiative set out by President Macron in September 2017 as part of his vision for a 'sovereign, united and democratic Europe'. In order to achieve that ambition he put forward proposals for a common European intervention force and a common doctrine for action, independent of the European Union. Nine European countries signed a Letter of Intent launching the initiative on 25 June 2018.

EI2 was European in focus but entirely independent of the European Union and NATO and their respective decision-making structures.

By remaining autonomous from the EU, EI2 allowed the full participation of Denmark which had an opt-out from the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). It also provided an avenue for post-Brexit participation by the UK in European security issues, although there were continuing concerns about Anglo-French defence cooperation post-Brexit

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Institut Montaigne / King's College London: Policy Institute: The UK-France defence and security relationship: How to improve cooperation. Report of the UK-France Taskforce, November 2018
ESO: In Focus, November 2018: Emmanuel Macron calls for creation of European army

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