Gibraltar in the context of Brexit negotiations

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Publication Date 2016-
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Reports and analyses on the negotiations relating to the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union when it comes to Gibraltar, its status and the overall post-Brexit situation of this territory.

Further information:

Gibraltar was ceded to the British Crown by the Spanish Crown in 1713 and has remained under British sovereignty since that time. Spain tried to recapture Gibraltar by military force in the 18th century and has maintained a political and diplomatic campaign to restore Gibraltar to Spanish sovereignty to the present day. The territory joined the EU in 1973 as an external European territory of the UK, and Spain became a full member of the EU in 1986. Gibraltar was exempted from the Customs Union and certain other provisions, but has otherwise enjoyed full access to the Single Market. Gibraltar did not join the Schengen group.

Gibraltar voted overwhelmingly to remain in the European Union as a result of the referendum held on the United Kingdom's membership. The negotiating guidelines put forward by the European Council stated that any agreement between the EU and UK would only apply to Gibraltar following a bilateral agreement between the UK and Spain. As negotiations unfolded, there were concerns the Spanish government could use this veto power as a lever to obtain concessions over the sovereignty of the territory. An agreement on the post-Brexit status of Gibraltar was eventually reached on 25 November 2018, following a last-minute dispute.

The United Kingdom and Spain concluded on 29 November 2018 a set of Memoranda of Understanding on Gibraltar, supporting the related protocol which is featured on the EU-UK Withdrawal Agreement. A Concordat was also published stating Memoranda and the Withdrawal Agreement’s Protocol on Gibraltar would be implemented in accordance with the Constitution of Gibraltar.

Related Links
Commentary and Analysis
Wikipedia: Effect of Brexit on Gibraltar
El País, 02.03.17: Gibraltar after Brexit
El País, 13.04.17: Brexit is threatening the fragile economic symbiosis between La Línea de la Concepción and the Rock
In Facts, 13.02.18: Brexiters heading for the Rock(s) on Gibraltar
The Independent, 01.03.18: Gibraltar is going to be an even bigger Brexit problem than Ireland – so why does no one want to talk about it?
The Week, 08.03.18: Gibraltar and Brexit: what are the key issues?
In Facts, 30.08.18: Gibraltar: Overseas and overlooked in Brexit debate
El País, 27.09.18: Gibraltar after Brexit
Conservative Home, 22.10.18: Meanwhile, good news from Gibraltar
UK Parliament: Library Research Papers, No 7963: Brexit and Gibraltar
UK Parliament: Library Research Papers, No 8278: Brexit: Gibraltar update
El País, 24.06.16: Gibraltar is Spanish!
EurActiv, 31.03.17: EU-27 hands Spain veto over Gibraltar’s Brexit deal
El País, 30.03.17: Stoic Gibraltar slowly comes to terms with life after Brexit
The Guardian, 03.04.17: Brexit talks: EU will not go soft on Gibraltar issue, diplomats say
Euro|topics: Debates, April 2017: How serious is the row over Gibraltar?
In Facts, 03.04.17: Leavers brazenly deflect blame over Gibraltar
The Conversation, 14.03.17: Brexit causes anguish on Gibraltar
Spiegel Online International, 03.04.17: A Rock and a Hard Place. Gibraltar Erupts as Early Brexit Issue
The Conversation, 05.04.17: Gibraltar: a history of ill will over the Rock
Carnegie Europe, 10.04.17: Brexit Between The Rock and a Hard Place
Verfassungsblog, 17.04.17: Gibraltar and the "Brexit" – New Scenarios within a Historic Dispute. A Proposal.

Politico, 11.12.16: Gibraltar seeks special Brexit deal
EurActiv, 09.01.17: Spain sees joint sovereignty over Gibraltar difficult if UK opposes
The Local (Spain), 03.05.17: Spain demands Brexit brings end to Gibraltar’s 'unfair competition'
El País, 03.05.17: Spain won’t allow Gibraltar to exercise 'unfair competition' after Brexit
The Local (Spain), 06.08.17: Spain won't seek to recover Gibraltar in Brexit talks: minister
The Guardian, 23.11.17: Brexit deal 'must work for Gibraltar', says Downing Street
Politico, 19.12.17: London fears Madrid wants to drag Gibraltar into Brexit transition talks
The Local (Spain), 08.02.18: Spain makes pledge on Gibraltar: 'Brexit won't change anything'
The Local (Spain), 23.03.18: Brexit: Spanish PM promises deal over Gibraltar
The Guardian, 24.07.18: Gibraltar: Spain warns UK over 'cliff-edge' Brexit
El País, 17.09.18: Spain wants a special chapter on Gibraltar in Brexit agreement
Euronews, 17.09.18: Barnier talks with Spain about Gibraltar ahead of Brexit
El País, 21.09.18: Spain hopeful of closing Gibraltar Brexit deal with UK by October
The Local (Spain), 21.09.18: Spain insists post-Brexit accord on Gibraltar must be reached by mid-October
El País, 01.10.18: Brussels puts pressure on Spain, UK to reach Brexit deal on Gibraltar
Politico, 18.10.18: Gibraltar Brexit deal done, says Spain’s Sánchez
El País, 18.10.18: At Brussels summit, Spain’s PM is hopeful of progress on Gibraltar
Sky News, 13.10.16: Johnson cites Godfather in rejecting Spain's Gibraltar claims
EurActiv, 13.10.16: Gibraltar wants special arrangement in Brexit treaty
Politico, 20.08.16: Brexit an ‘existential threat’ to Gibraltar economy: chief minister
The Local (Spain), 11.07.16: Gibraltar wants another referendum on Brexit
Politico, 24.06.16: Spain: post-Brexit UK should drop Gibraltar
The Local (Spain), 24.06.16: Brexit: Spain calls for shared sovereignty over Gibraltar
The Local (Spain), 02.04.17: 'Gibraltar not for sale': Britain's Johnson
Politico, 02.04.17: U.K.-Spain tensions over Gibraltar flare
El País, 31.03.17: No EU-UK deal will apply to Gibraltar without agreement from Spain
The Guardian, 31.03.17: Future of Gibraltar at stake in Brexit negotiations
BBC News, 01.04.17: Brexit: Gibraltar angered by Spain's EU 'veto'
EUobserver, 03.04.17: Brexit talks turn ugly over Gibraltar
EurActiv, 03.04.17: Brexit could turn Gibraltar into next Falklands, senior conservative claims
El País, 03.04.17: 'There is no reason to lose one’s cool over Gibraltar': Spanish foreign minister
The Local (Spain), 03.04.17: Spain 'surprised' by Britain's belligerent tone on Gibraltar
EUObserver, 04.04.17: EU rounds wagons in Gibraltar dispute
Deutsche Welle, 04.04.17: Spanish navy patrol ship sails into Gibraltar's waters prompting interception
The Local (Spain), 04.04.17: Britain to protest unlawful incursion by Spanish warship in Gibraltar waters

Government of Gibraltar: Press Release, 07.12.16: UK and Gibraltar prepare for Brexit negotiations
Government of Gibraltar: Press Release, 09.12.16: Chief Minister to address House of Lords Select Committee on European Union
Government of Gibraltar: Press Release, 01.03.17: Positive Engagement on Brexit Matters between Gibraltar and UK
UK Government: Press Release, 08.03.18: Gibraltar and UK Government agree measures to ensure strong relationship continues
UK Parliament: House of Lords: News, 28.03.18: Brexit: Gibraltar - Lords EU Committee presses Government for four key commitments
UK Government: Department for Exiting the European Union: Press Release, 05.06.18: Joint Ministerial Council (Gibraltar EU Negotiations) 5 June 2018
UK Government: Secretary of State meeting with Chief Minister of Gibraltar, 26 September 2018
Government of Gibraltar: Press Release, 01.10.18: Success for Team Gibraltar at Conservative Party Conference
UK Parliament: House of Lords: EU Committee, 23.10.18: Brexit: Gibraltar. Discussion with Hon Fabian Picardo, Chief Minister, HM Government of Gibraltar; Michael Llamas QC, Attorney-General, HM Government of Gibraltar
Government of Gibraltar: Press Release, 28.09.16: Garcia briefs German pro-Europe group on effects of Brexit
Government of Gibraltar: Press Release, 06.10.16: No way, Jose
Government of Gibraltar: Press Release, 12.10.16: Chief Minister Addresses Brussels Think Tank
Government of Gibraltar: Press Release, 20.07.16: Government commence detailed assessment of Gibraltar’s EU position
Government of Gibraltar: Press Release, 03.08.16: Chief Minister Meets New Minister for Europe
Government of Gibraltar: Press Release, 15.08.16: Select Committee on the EU
Government of Gibraltar: Press Release, 18.07.16: Chief Minister meets new Foreign Secretary Rt Hon Boris Johnson MP & Toast: 'British Gibraltar'
UK Government: Press Release, 16.07.16: Foreign Secretary reaffirms UK commitment to Gibraltar
Government of Gibraltar: Press Release, 24.06.16: Statement by The Chief Minister to the Gibraltar Parliament
Government of Gibraltar: Press Release, 27.06.16: Government reassures the public after EU Referendum
Government of Gibraltar: Press Release, 01.07.16: Chief Minister Holds Meeting with La Linea Mayor to Discuss Brexit Strategy
Government of Gibraltar: Press Release, 29.03.17: Chief Minister’s Statement on the Prime Minister’s Triggering of Art 50 of the Lisbon Treaty
UK Government: Press Release, 02.04.17: PM call with Chief Minister of Gibraltar: 2 April 2017

ESO Records
Brexit - The United Kingdom and the European Union
Brexit and the view from Spain [The EU Referendum, 23 June 2016. The United Kingdom and the European Union. The results. Reaction in Spain]

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